Surgical Procedures | San Jose

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We welcome you to our practice and look forward to caring for you.

Surgery/Imaging provides a full range of medical services including the following:

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

Benign prostatic hyperplasia, also known as BPH, is an enlarged prostate that commonly causes urinary problems in men aged 50 years and older. It is a common condition that occurs as men age, causing the gland to press against the urethra and cause problems with urination. BPH may also be due to an excess of certain hormones in the body. ...


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Biliary Drainage

Biliary drainage, also called percutaneous biliary drainage, is a common treatment for clearing gallstones and other blockages from the bile ducts. The bile ducts carry bile from the liver to the gallbladder and small intestine to aid in digestion.

During biliary drainage, an incision is made through the skin into the liver, where a stent is placed to hold the bile duct open. A biliary drainage tube (catheter) is then inserted to clear the bile duct of any obstructions. If the bile duct is blocked by gallstones, surgery to remove the gallbladder is usually performed. In the case of cancer in the region, the bile duct may be widened during an endoscopic procedure. ...


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Brain Aneurysm Embolization

A brain aneurysm embolization, also known as endovascular coiling, is a minimally invasive treatment for a brain aneurysm. It can be used to treat aneurysms that have ruptured and those that are intact. During the procedure, a catheter is inserted into the artery and a coil is threaded through the catheter and placed within the aneurysm, cutting off the flow of blood to the aneurysm. The lack of blood flow prevents the aneurysm from rupturing or leaking. Brain aneurysm embolization is an alternative treatment method available to patients that do not qualify for surgery. ...


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Carotid Angioplasty with Stent Placement

Carotid angioplasty and stent placement is a minimally invasive procedure performed to open blocked arteries and improve blood flow. During the procedure, the surgeon will permanently place a stent to keep the artery open, preventing or treating a stroke. The carotid arteries are located on each side of the neck and are the arteries responsible for blood flow to the brain. ...


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Deep Vein Thrombosis

Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) occurs when a blood clot, also known as a thrombus, forms in a vein deep within the body. Such clots most frequently form in the legs, but may occur in other parts of the body. Blood clots can be caused by anything that prevents the blood from circulating normally or clotting properly. Deep vein thrombosis may be caused by extended periods of inactivity; in some cases it may be the result of staying in bed during a long hospital stay or sitting for a long-period of time on an airplane flight. An injury to a vein or certain medical conditions may also cause a blood clot to form. DVT is a serious condition that requires medical treatment, as a blood clot may travel to the blood vessels of the lungs, heart or brain, causing serious complications which can be fatal. ...

Genicular Artery Embolization


Abnormal blood vessel formation, also known as angiogenesis, is one of the causes of knee pain in osteoarthritis patients. Angiogenesis is a key step in the initiation and maintenance of inflammation in the joint capsule. Abnormal vessels that breach into a vascular cartilage in the knee is a hallmark of osteoarthritis, so much so that it is one of the diagnostic features of the disease.
GAE is an interventional radiology treatment that can relieve osteoarthritis pain by treating the offending abnormal blood vessels. The procedure blocks the abnormal blood vessels. Doing this reduces inflammation and its resultant pain.
Patients cannot get long-term results if their doctors do not treat the root cause of their pain. Genicular artery embolization treats one of the main causes of osteoarthritis and knee joint degeneration.
An interventional radiologist (IR) performs the procedure. An IR is trained to perform minimally invasive vascular procedures to treat multiple conditions. They treat their patients using procedures such as angioplasty (widening narrow or blocked blood vessels to improve blood flow) and embolization (blocking blood flow from blood vessels).
An IR is a medical doctor that has obtained at least six additional years of specialized training in radiology and interventional radiology.
What Happens During a GAE Procedure?
GAE is an outpatient procedure that typically takes one hour to perform. The patient is provided with “twilight” sedation, which leaves them in a conscious yet sedated state. They are completely relaxed and will not feel any pain.
After the patient has been anesthetized, the IR will insert a catheter (a hollow tube) into the patient’s leg (the upper thigh) and into the blood vessels supplying the knee joint. X-ray technology will be utilized to guide the doctor to the correct vessels.
Once the catheter is positioned properly, the doctor will inject microsphere particles. The tiny particles will slow down blood flow into the angiogenesis vessels, which in turn reduces inflammation and pain.
What Happens After the Procedure?
Patients who undergo GAE treatment can go home the same day.
In most cases, pain relief begins to occur within two weeks, as the inflammation in the knee’s joint capsule is reduced, relieving the knee pain associated with osteoarthritis.

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Dialysis FAQs

What is dialysis?

Dialysis is a process that substitutes for kidney function when the normal operation of the kidneys is interrupted. In a healthy body, the kidneys serve to regulate fluid levels in the body, filter waste products and control urination. Dialysis performs these functions when the kidneys fail due to disease or injury and the resultant buildup of waste products in the body threatens to cause illness. ...


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Epidural Steroid Injections

By reducing inflammation, epidural steroid injections (ESIs) are used to temporarily relieve lumbar (lower back), cervical (neck), thoracic (mid-spine) and sciatic-nerve pain. ESIs contain cortisone and an anesthetic, and are delivered directly to the epidural space, which is the area between the spinal cord and the outer membrane that covers the brain and spinal cord (the dura). As a result, they provide more effective and faster pain relief than oral medications. ...


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Pelvic Pain Syndrome

Pelvic pain syndrome is a chronic condition that involves persistent pain in the lower-abdominal and pelvic regions. Pelvic pain syndrome may be diagnosed when pelvic pain is chronic, and has been present for more than 6 months. It can affect women both physically and emotionally, leading to sleep disturbances, anxiety, depression and sexual dysfunction. Pelvic pain can be a symptom of an underlying condition, or its cause may remain unknown. Living with pelvic pain syndrome is often difficult, and many women spend years trying to determine its cause. ...


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Peripheral Artery Disease - FAQ's

What is peripheral artery disease?

Peripheral artery disease (PAD), also known as peripheral vascular disease (PVD), occurs when peripheral blood vessels are blocked, hardened and narrowed with plaque in a condition called atherosclerosis. This condition reduces the amount of blood that flows to your head, organs and limbs and increases the risk of a heart attack, stroke, and transient ischemic attack. Due to the restricted blood flow, peripheral artery disease increases your risk of infection in your limbs. In severe cases of peripheral artery disease, gangrene can occur. ...


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Varicocele

A varicocele is an enlargement of the veins within the scrotum. Varicoceles are similar to varicose veins in the legs and form for similar reasons. The valves inside the veins become weak and ineffective, enabling a backflow of blood. Varicoceles are common, occurring in about 15 to 20 percent of all males. Almost all varicoceles affect the left testicle. Many varicoceles cause no symptoms, but they may result in discomfort and are a major, though reparable, cause of infertility. When and if varicoceles become troublesome, they can be corrected surgically. ...


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Carotid Artery Ultrasound

A carotid artery ultrasound is a diagnostic procedure that uses high-frequency sound waves to generate images of the neck's internal carotid arteries, which supply oxygen-rich blood to the brain. A carotid artery ultrasound is used to evaluate a patient's risk of stroke or other cardiovascular complications by checking for artery-narrowing plaque buildup. ...


Read More...
 

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Treatment

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia, also known as BPH, is an enlarged prostate that commonly causes urinary problems in men over the age of 50. It is a common condition that occurs as men age, causing the gland to press against the urethra and cause problems with urination. ...


Read More...
 

Brain Arteriovenous Malformation

A brain arteriovenous malformation, also known as a brain AVM, is a congenital condition that involves an abnormal connection between arteries and veins within the brain, causing them to appear tangled and dilated, putting patients at risk for hemorrhaging and other serious complications. AVMs may prevent oxygenated blood from completely circulating throughout the brain, causing symptoms such as headaches and vision problems. AVMs are present at birth and may occur nearly anywhere in the body, but are most common within the brain or spine. The exact cause of this condition is unknown, but it is believed to develop in utero, during fetal development. Brain arteriovenous malformations are more common in males than females and some evidence suggests they may run in families. ...


Read More...
 

Uterine Artery Embolization

Uterine artery embolization, also known as fibroid embolization, is a minimally invasive procedure that blocks blood flow to uterine fibroids, shrinking or destroying the non-cancerous tumors that grow on the uterine walls.

While fibroids do not always cause symptoms, they may lead to future complications and usually require treatment. Traditional treatment can be done with surgery - either a myomectomy to remove the fibroids, or a hysterectomy to remove the entire uterus. Fibroid embolization is a less invasive procedure that is performed under sedation through a blood vessel in the upper thigh. A catheter is first inserted into the blood vessel. A contrast material is then injected into the catheter providing the physician with a visual field of the blood supply to the fibroid. Particles that cut off the blood flow to the fibroid are injected through the catheter which close off the blood supply to the fibroid. ...


Read More...
 

Facet-Joint Injections

Facet-joint injections are both a minimally invasive treatment for back pain caused by inflamed facet joints, and a diagnostic tool for determining whether facet-joint inflammation is a source of pain. Four facet joints connect each vertebra to the vertebra above and below it. A facet-joint injection, administered into either the joint capsule or its surrounding tissue, combines a long-lasting steroid and a local anesthetic. ...


Read More...
 

Gastrostomy

Gastrostomy is a procedure during which a plastic feeding tube is inserted directly into the intestinal tract to provide nourishment when normal nutrition is difficult or impossible. Gastrostomy may conducted during an endoscopy, when the surgeon has inserted a tube through the nose down into the stomach, or through an incision in the skin that penetrates the abdominal wall. Patients using a feeding tube are said to be undergoing gavage or enteral feeding. ...


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Hemodialysis

Hemodialysis ("dialysis," for short) is a blood-cleansing procedure used as treatment for chronic kidney failure. The chief function of the kidneys is to filter waste products from the blood. When the kidneys fail, hemodialysis takes over their function. During hemodialysis, blood is removed from a vein in the patient's arm (the leg is also used, albeit much less frequently), circulated through a filtering machine, and returned to the body through an artery. ...


Read More...
 

Hypercoagulation Disorders

Hypercoagulation disorders, also known as thrombophilia or thrombotic disorders, are abnormalities in which a patient's blood clots too easily, resulting in several possible disease conditions. Coagulation is a vital process. Fortunately, for most people it is also an automatic, dependable one. In some cases, however, hypercoagulation (excessive clotting) occurs and may become life-threatening. ...


Read More...
 

Inferior Vena Cava Filter

An inferior vena cava (IVC) filter , is a vascular filter that is inserted through a small incision into the main vein in the abdomen. This vein in the abdomen is called the inferior vena cava. The filter prevents blood clots from breaking loose in leg veins and lodging in the lung. The IVC filter is typically implanted permanently in those patients with a high risk of pulmonary embolism. ...


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Intracranial Aneurysm

An intracranial aneurysm, also known as a cerebral aneurysm, is a blood vessel within the brain that bulges or expands like a balloon and fills with blood. Caused by a weakness in wall of an artery, an intracranial aneurysm may lead to pressure on surrounding nerves and tissue, and an increased risk of rupture or hemorrhage. While this condition can occur anywhere within the brain, intracranial aneurysms most commonly affect the arteries from the underside of the brain to the base of the skull. Intracranial aneurysms can affect individuals of all ages, but are more common in adults than children, and seem to affect women more than men. ...


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Nephrostomy

A nephrostomy, also known as percutaneous nephrostomy, is performed to drain urine from the kidney. This procedure is necessary when urine cannot move through the ureters, bladder, and urethra as it normally does. A nephrostomy is performed by the surgical insertion of a tube directly into the kidney. The function of the nephrostomy is to temporarily drain urine either because its flow has been blocked or because normal urine flow has to be temporarily interrupted for medical reasons. The procedure allows the kidney to function properly and protects it from further damage. It also helps to clear any infection. ...


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Pain Management

An estimated 70 million Americans suffer from chronic pain. Chronic pain is a major medical condition distinctly different from and more complex than acute pain. Whereas acute pain is a normal sensation triggered in the nervous system to alert the body to possible injury, chronic pain is a state in which pain persists, for many months or years, beyond the normal course required by healing. The effects, both economic and personal, associated with chronic pain can be significant. They include loss of income; debt from costly medical treatment; impaired mobility; and anxiety and depression. ...


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Peritoneal Dialysis

Dialysis is a treatment to filter the blood and remove waste products when the kidneys are no longer functioning properly. During hemodialysis, the patient's blood circulates through a machine to be cleansed before re-entering the body. This procedure takes place in a medical setting under the supervision of a healthcare professional. ...


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Stroke

A stroke occurs when there is a reduction in the flow of blood to the brain. The lack of blood supply may be the result of a blockage in an artery or a burst blood vessel in the brain. A stroke deprives brain tissue of oxygen and nutrients, causing brain cells to die. A stroke is a medical emergency and requires immediate attention by a medical professional. Prompt treatment can minimize damage to the brain and prevent further complications. ...


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Uterine Fibroids

Uterine fibroids (myomas) are tumors that grow in the uterine walls. They are usually benign, and vary in size and quantity. The exact cause of uterine fibroids is unknown, but their formation may be affected by genetics, with a woman being more likely to develop them if she has a family member similarly afflicted. Most fibroids do not cause any symptoms and do not require any treatment, although, in some cases, they lead to pregnancy complications. Uterine fibroids are most common in women older than 30, and during the reproductive years. ...


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Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy

A percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, also known as a PEG or gastrostomy tube insertion, is a surgical procedure to insert a feeding tube through the abdomen and into the stomach. A gastrostomy can be either a temporary or long-term treatment, depending on the condition of the patient. ...


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Sacroiliac-Joint Steroid Injections

Sacroiliac-joint steroid injections help to diagnose and relieve lower-back pain caused by problems with one or both of the sacroiliac joints, which connect the spine's base (sacrum) to the pelvis's ilium bones. If one or both of the sacroiliac joints is inflamed (sacroiliac-joint dysfunction), a patient can experience pain in the buttocks and lower back that worsens when running or standing. Sacroiliac-joint dysfunction can be caused by osteoarthritis, traumatic injury, pregnancy, inflammatory joint disease, or underlying structural abnormalities. ...


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Thrombophlebitis

Thrombophlebitis is a swelling of a vein caused by a clot. It usually occurs in the leg, though it may rarely occur in the arm or neck. When the affected vein is near the surface of the skin, the condition is called superficial thrombophlebitis. When it occurs deep within a muscle, it is known as deep vein thrombosis and is much more dangerous. Thrombophlebitis may develop as a result of prolonged inactivity, such as a lengthy period of bed rest or extended travel in a car or plane. The risk for thrombophlebitis is diminished by limiting periods spent sitting or standing in one place. ...


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Varicose Veins

Varicose veins, which appear as unsightly bulges, usually on the legs, may be a medical, as well as cosmetic, problem. Varicose veins affect both men and women. According to the The National Institutes of Health, a quarter of patients who suffer from this condition are men. More women seek help for this disorder than men not only because more women suffer from them, but because in our culture women expose their legs more frequently to public view. Regardless of gender, however, varicose veins can be a serious problem requiring medical intervention. ...


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Varicose Veins FAQs

Varicose veins are enlarged veins near the surface of the skin which may be troubling both cosmetically and medically. They occur most frequently in the legs, but may exist elsewhere in the body. Following are some of the questions frequently asked by patients who suffer with varicose veins. ...


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Venous Thrombectomy

Venous thrombectomy is the surgical removal of a clot within a large vein. This type of clot usually develops as a complication of deep vein thrombosis (DVT), a common but serious condition in which a clot develops in a vein deep within the body. DVT causes vein damage, resulting in impeded blood flow. Although DVT is often asymptomatic, if the clot detaches and travels to the lungs, pulmonary embolism, which is potentially fatal, can develop. Venous thrombectomy is generally viewed as a treatment of last resort, and is sometimes performed only when a patient already has a pulmonary embolism. ...


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Thoracic Oncology Surgery

Thoracic surgical oncology is a division of general thoracic surgery that provides state-of-the-art care and palliative treatment for patients with cancer of the following:

  • Lung
  • Esophagus
  • Chest

A multidisciplinary approach is taken in providing treatment to patients. Advances in technology have made diagnosis more accurate; therefore, tailoring treatment or a combination of treatments for patients is an increasingly common practice. Therapies may include: ...


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Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm

An aneurysm is a bulge in an artery, caused by a weakening of the blood vessel wall. A thoracic aortic aneurysm forms in the chest, within the body's largest artery, known as the aorta, typically caused by atherosclerosis, or hardening of the arteries. Atherosclerosis is a condition in which a gradual buildup of fats and cholesterol along the artery walls hardens into a substance called plaque. As the amount of plaque increases, it slowly narrows the diameter of the artery, often causing an aneurysm, and contributing to other cardiovascular disorders. ...


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Pulmonary Embolism

A pulmonary embolism is a blockage of one or more arteries in the lungs. It is most often caused by a blood clot that travels to the lungs from another part of the body. Blood clots usually form in the veins of the legs or arms, but can dislodge and travel through the bloodstream to the lungs. Although a pulmonary embolism is not usually fatal, it is a complication of deep vein thrombosis, and can be life-threatening. ...


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Ultrasound-Guided Biopsy

Ultrasound is an excellent way to evaluate breast abnormalities detected by mammography, but in some cases it is not possible to tell from the imaging studies alone whether a growth is benign or cancerous. Ultrasound-guided breast biopsy is a highly accurate way to evaluate suspicious masses within the breast that are visible on ultrasound, whether or not they can be felt on breast self-examination or clinical examination. ...


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May-Thurner Syndrome

May-Thurner syndrome is the result of the compression of the left iliac vein.The right iliac artery, which normally lays over the iliac vein, is the cause of this condition. In this syndrome, the right iliac artery constricts the iliac vein which narrows as a result of the constriction and sometimes scars. An individual with May-Thurner syndrome is at increased risk for developing deep vein thrombosis, or DVT, a potentially serious blood clot that can completely obstruct the circulation of blood in that vein. Such an individual may also develop venous insufficiency as a result of the deep vein thrombosis, known as post-thrombotic syndrome. ...


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Peripheral Artery Disease Testing

Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is often caused by atherosclerosis, an accumulation of plaque in the peripheral arteries, which carry blood to the arms, legs and internal organs. Atherosclerosis causes the peripheral arteries to narrow and harden, and/or become blocked. By reducing the amount of blood that flows to the limbs and organs, atherosclerosis increases the risk of heart attack, stroke and transient ischemic attack. It can also cause limbs to become infected and, in severe cases, gangrenous. ...


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Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm FAQ's

What is an abdominal aortic aneurysm?

An aneurysm is a localized, balloon-like expansion in a blood vessel, caused by weak vessel walls. The abdominal aorta refers to the part of the aorta, the artery that carries oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the legs, between the diaphragm and the legs. That is why the bulge that occurs in the abdominal aorta is called an abdominal aortic aneurysm. ...


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TriVex® System

The TriVex® System is used in transilluminated vein extraction, a minimally invasive procedure for the removal of varicose veins. TriVex technology employs a powerful light that targets only the damaged vein and requires fewer incisions and less time than a typical microphlebectomy. ...


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Bariatric Surgery

Bariatric surgery is a surgical treatment for patients who are seriously obese, or obese and have another dangerous medical condition. There are several types of bariatric surgery, each of which makes surgical changes to the stomach and digestive tract that limit how much food can be ingested, and how much nutrition can be absorbed. All types of bariatric surgery are performed to promote weight loss. ...


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Obesity

Obesity is a chronic condition defined by an excess of body fat. Body fat has several important functions in the body, such as storing energy and providing insulation. Excess body fat, however, may interfere with an individual's health and well-being, particularly if a patient becomes morbidly obese. Not only does obesity interfere with everyday activities, it also increases the risk of developing serious medical conditions, such as high blood pressure and diabetes. Obesity is a serious health issue presently reaching epidemic proportions in society. It results in medical complications and early morbidity for a great many people. Other health conditions caused or exacerbated by obesity may include heart disease, osteoarthritis, sleep apnea, high cholesterol and asthma. The good news is that obesity is a treatable ailment and that modern medicine provides more remedies for the condition than previously existed. ...


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Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm FAQ's

What is an abdominal aortic aneurysm?

An aneurysm is a localized, balloon-like expansion in a blood vessel, caused by weak vessel walls. The abdominal aorta refers to the part of the aorta, the artery that carries oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the legs, between the diaphragm and the legs. That is why the bulge that occurs in the abdominal aorta is called an abdominal aortic aneurysm. ...


Read More...
 

Biliary Drainage

Biliary drainage, also called percutaneous biliary drainage, is a common treatment for clearing gallstones and other blockages from the bile ducts. The bile ducts carry bile from the liver to the gallbladder and small intestine to aid in digestion.

During biliary drainage, an incision is made through the skin into the liver, where a stent is placed to hold the bile duct open. A biliary drainage tube (catheter) is then inserted to clear the bile duct of any obstructions. If the bile duct is blocked by gallstones, surgery to remove the gallbladder is usually performed. In the case of cancer in the region, the bile duct may be widened during an endoscopic procedure. ...


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Brain Aneurysm Embolization

A brain aneurysm embolization, also known as endovascular coiling, is a minimally invasive treatment for a brain aneurysm. It can be used to treat aneurysms that have ruptured and those that are intact. During the procedure, a catheter is inserted into the artery and a coil is threaded through the catheter and placed within the aneurysm, cutting off the flow of blood to the aneurysm. The lack of blood flow prevents the aneurysm from rupturing or leaking. Brain aneurysm embolization is an alternative treatment method available to patients that do not qualify for surgery. ...


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Cardiovascular Disease FAQs

The heart is a muscle that pumps oxygenated blood from the arteries throughout the body. Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the buildup of fatty deposits in the coronary arteries, the arteries that supply blood to the heart. These fatty substances, such as cholesterol, fat or cells that collect along the lining of the coronary arteries are called plaque. Most of the plaque build-up, either in the heart or the blood vessels, develops over the course of time. Because the arteries supply oxygen-rich blood to the heart, any blockage left untreated can result in the risk of the patient experiencing a heart attack, stroke or even death. ...


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Carotid Angioplasty with Stent Placement

Carotid angioplasty and stent placement is a minimally invasive procedure performed to open blocked arteries and improve blood flow. During the procedure, the surgeon will permanently place a stent to keep the artery open, preventing or treating a stroke. The carotid arteries are located on each side of the neck and are the arteries responsible for blood flow to the brain. ...


Read More...
 

Computed Tomography Scan

Computed tomography (CT) scan is a sophisticated X-ray imaging system that scans thin "slices" of the body on all sides, then combines those slices into a highly detailed, three-dimensional digital image of hard and soft tissues in the body. The procedure is non-invasive, requires minimal radiation exposure, and can simultaneously depict tissues of different densities, which is not possible with traditional X-ray methods. ...


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Dialysis FAQs

What is dialysis?

Dialysis is a process that substitutes for kidney function when the normal operation of the kidneys is interrupted. In a healthy body, the kidneys serve to regulate fluid levels in the body, filter waste products and control urination. Dialysis performs these functions when the kidneys fail due to disease or injury and the resultant buildup of waste products in the body threatens to cause illness. ...


Read More...
 

Pelvic Pain Syndrome

Pelvic pain syndrome is a chronic condition that involves persistent pain in the lower-abdominal and pelvic regions. Pelvic pain syndrome may be diagnosed when pelvic pain is chronic, and has been present for more than 6 months. It can affect women both physically and emotionally, leading to sleep disturbances, anxiety, depression and sexual dysfunction. Pelvic pain can be a symptom of an underlying condition, or its cause may remain unknown. Living with pelvic pain syndrome is often difficult, and many women spend years trying to determine its cause. ...


Read More...
 

Varicocele

A varicocele is an enlargement of the veins within the scrotum. Varicoceles are similar to varicose veins in the legs and form for similar reasons. The valves inside the veins become weak and ineffective, enabling a backflow of blood. Varicoceles are common, occurring in about 15 to 20 percent of all males. Almost all varicoceles affect the left testicle. Many varicoceles cause no symptoms, but they may result in discomfort and are a major, though reparable, cause of infertility. When and if varicoceles become troublesome, they can be corrected surgically. ...


Read More...
 

Carotid Artery Ultrasound

A carotid artery ultrasound is a diagnostic procedure that uses high-frequency sound waves to generate images of the neck's internal carotid arteries, which supply oxygen-rich blood to the brain. A carotid artery ultrasound is used to evaluate a patient's risk of stroke or other cardiovascular complications by checking for artery-narrowing plaque buildup. ...


Read More...
 

Brain Arteriovenous Malformation

A brain arteriovenous malformation, also known as a brain AVM, is a congenital condition that involves an abnormal connection between arteries and veins within the brain, causing them to appear tangled and dilated, putting patients at risk for hemorrhaging and other serious complications. AVMs may prevent oxygenated blood from completely circulating throughout the brain, causing symptoms such as headaches and vision problems. AVMs are present at birth and may occur nearly anywhere in the body, but are most common within the brain or spine. The exact cause of this condition is unknown, but it is believed to develop in utero, during fetal development. Brain arteriovenous malformations are more common in males than females and some evidence suggests they may run in families. ...


Read More...
 

Uterine Artery Embolization

Uterine artery embolization, also known as fibroid embolization, is a minimally invasive procedure that blocks blood flow to uterine fibroids, shrinking or destroying the non-cancerous tumors that grow on the uterine walls.

While fibroids do not always cause symptoms, they may lead to future complications and usually require treatment. Traditional treatment can be done with surgery - either a myomectomy to remove the fibroids, or a hysterectomy to remove the entire uterus. Fibroid embolization is a less invasive procedure that is performed under sedation through a blood vessel in the upper thigh. A catheter is first inserted into the blood vessel. A contrast material is then injected into the catheter providing the physician with a visual field of the blood supply to the fibroid. Particles that cut off the blood flow to the fibroid are injected through the catheter which close off the blood supply to the fibroid. ...


Read More...
 

Deep Vein Thrombosis

Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) occurs when a blood clot, also known as a thrombus, forms in a vein deep within the body. Such clots most frequently form in the legs, but may occur in other parts of the body. Blood clots can be caused by anything that prevents the blood from circulating normally or clotting properly. Deep vein thrombosis may be caused by extended periods of inactivity; in some cases it may be the result of staying in bed during a long hospital stay or sitting for a long-period of time on an airplane flight. An injury to a vein or certain medical conditions may also cause a blood clot to form. DVT is a serious condition that requires medical treatment, as a blood clot may travel to the blood vessels of the lungs, heart or brain, causing serious complications which can be fatal. ...


Read More...
 

Epidural Steroid Injections

By reducing inflammation, epidural steroid injections (ESIs) are used to temporarily relieve lumbar (lower back), cervical (neck), thoracic (mid-spine) and sciatic-nerve pain. ESIs contain cortisone and an anesthetic, and are delivered directly to the epidural space, which is the area between the spinal cord and the outer membrane that covers the brain and spinal cord (the dura). As a result, they provide more effective and faster pain relief than oral medications. ...


Read More...
 

Fluoroscopy

Fluoroscopy is an X-ray imaging technique that produces a video of internal body structures in motion. During a fluoroscopy, X-ray beams are passed through the region of the body that is being examined, producing video images that are transmitted to a monitor. In this way, the targeted area can be viewed in detail. Fluoroscopy is an effective tool to evaluate the function of almost all the body's systems, including the digestive, urinary, cardiovascular, respiratory, musculoskeletal and reproductive. Fluoroscopy can be used on its own as a diagnostic tool, or in combination with other diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. ...


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Gastrostomy

Gastrostomy is a procedure during which a plastic feeding tube is inserted directly into the intestinal tract to provide nourishment when normal nutrition is difficult or impossible. Gastrostomy may conducted during an endoscopy, when the surgeon has inserted a tube through the nose down into the stomach, or through an incision in the skin that penetrates the abdominal wall. Patients using a feeding tube are said to be undergoing gavage or enteral feeding. ...


Read More...
 

Hemodialysis

Hemodialysis ("dialysis," for short) is a blood-cleansing procedure used as treatment for chronic kidney failure. The chief function of the kidneys is to filter waste products from the blood. When the kidneys fail, hemodialysis takes over their function. During hemodialysis, blood is removed from a vein in the patient's arm (the leg is also used, albeit much less frequently), circulated through a filtering machine, and returned to the body through an artery. ...


Read More...
 

Facet-Joint Injections

Facet-joint injections are both a minimally invasive treatment for back pain caused by inflamed facet joints, and a diagnostic tool for determining whether facet-joint inflammation is a source of pain. Four facet joints connect each vertebra to the vertebra above and below it. A facet-joint injection, administered into either the joint capsule or its surrounding tissue, combines a long-lasting steroid and a local anesthetic. ...


Read More...
 

X-Rays

X-rays are efficient, painless diagnostic tests that produce images of the interior of the body. X-ray beams pass through the body, but they are absorbed in different amounts depending on the density of the tissue they pass through. Dense materials, such as bone and metal, show up as white on X-rays. The air in the lungs shows up as black. Fat and muscle appear as varying shades of gray. ...


Read More...
 

Hypercoagulation Disorders

Hypercoagulation disorders, also known as thrombophilia or thrombotic disorders, are abnormalities in which a patient's blood clots too easily, resulting in several possible disease conditions. Coagulation is a vital process. Fortunately, for most people it is also an automatic, dependable one. In some cases, however, hypercoagulation (excessive clotting) occurs and may become life-threatening. ...


Read More...
 

Intracranial Aneurysm

An intracranial aneurysm, also known as a cerebral aneurysm, is a blood vessel within the brain that bulges or expands like a balloon and fills with blood. Caused by a weakness in wall of an artery, an intracranial aneurysm may lead to pressure on surrounding nerves and tissue, and an increased risk of rupture or hemorrhage. While this condition can occur anywhere within the brain, intracranial aneurysms most commonly affect the arteries from the underside of the brain to the base of the skull. Intracranial aneurysms can affect individuals of all ages, but are more common in adults than children, and seem to affect women more than men. ...


Read More...
 

Nephrostomy

A nephrostomy, also known as percutaneous nephrostomy, is performed to drain urine from the kidney. This procedure is necessary when urine cannot move through the ureters, bladder, and urethra as it normally does. A nephrostomy is performed by the surgical insertion of a tube directly into the kidney. The function of the nephrostomy is to temporarily drain urine either because its flow has been blocked or because normal urine flow has to be temporarily interrupted for medical reasons. The procedure allows the kidney to function properly and protects it from further damage. It also helps to clear any infection. ...


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Peritoneal Dialysis

Dialysis is a treatment to filter the blood and remove waste products when the kidneys are no longer functioning properly. During hemodialysis, the patient's blood circulates through a machine to be cleansed before re-entering the body. This procedure takes place in a medical setting under the supervision of a healthcare professional. ...


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Stroke

A stroke occurs when there is a reduction in the flow of blood to the brain. The lack of blood supply may be the result of a blockage in an artery or a burst blood vessel in the brain. A stroke deprives brain tissue of oxygen and nutrients, causing brain cells to die. A stroke is a medical emergency and requires immediate attention by a medical professional. Prompt treatment can minimize damage to the brain and prevent further complications. ...


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Uterine Fibroids

Uterine fibroids (myomas) are tumors that grow in the uterine walls. They are usually benign, and vary in size and quantity. The exact cause of uterine fibroids is unknown, but their formation may be affected by genetics, with a woman being more likely to develop them if she has a family member similarly afflicted. Most fibroids do not cause any symptoms and do not require any treatment, although, in some cases, they lead to pregnancy complications. Uterine fibroids are most common in women older than 30, and during the reproductive years. ...


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Inferior Vena Cava Filter

An inferior vena cava (IVC) filter , is a vascular filter that is inserted through a small incision into the main vein in the abdomen. This vein in the abdomen is called the inferior vena cava. The filter prevents blood clots from breaking loose in leg veins and lodging in the lung. The IVC filter is typically implanted permanently in those patients with a high risk of pulmonary embolism. ...


Read More...
 

Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy

A percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, also known as a PEG or gastrostomy tube insertion, is a surgical procedure to insert a feeding tube through the abdomen and into the stomach. A gastrostomy can be either a temporary or long-term treatment, depending on the condition of the patient. ...


Read More...
 

Pain Management

An estimated 70 million Americans suffer from chronic pain. Chronic pain is a major medical condition distinctly different from and more complex than acute pain. Whereas acute pain is a normal sensation triggered in the nervous system to alert the body to possible injury, chronic pain is a state in which pain persists, for many months or years, beyond the normal course required by healing. The effects, both economic and personal, associated with chronic pain can be significant. They include loss of income; debt from costly medical treatment; impaired mobility; and anxiety and depression. ...


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Ultrasound

An ultrasound, also known as a sonogram, is a fast, painless imaging technique that produces images of the internal organs through the use of high-frequency sound waves. It is especially useful for examining the breasts, bladder, thyroid, abdominal organs and male and female reproductive organs, and for obtaining images of the fetus in the womb. ...


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Coronary Artery Disease

Coronary artery disease is a buildup of fatty deposits in the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart. This buildup of fat, cholesterol and calcium, known collectively as plaque, can cause a hardening and narrowing of the arteries that restricts blood from reaching the heart. Blood clots can also form and completely block the artery. Coronary artery disease develops gradually, and can eventually lead to a heart attack or heart failure. Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of death in the United States for both men and women. ...


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Sacroiliac-Joint Steroid Injections

Sacroiliac-joint steroid injections help to diagnose and relieve lower-back pain caused by problems with one or both of the sacroiliac joints, which connect the spine's base (sacrum) to the pelvis's ilium bones. If one or both of the sacroiliac joints is inflamed (sacroiliac-joint dysfunction), a patient can experience pain in the buttocks and lower back that worsens when running or standing. Sacroiliac-joint dysfunction can be caused by osteoarthritis, traumatic injury, pregnancy, inflammatory joint disease, or underlying structural abnormalities. ...


Read More...
 

Thrombophlebitis

Thrombophlebitis is a swelling of a vein caused by a clot. It usually occurs in the leg, though it may rarely occur in the arm or neck. When the affected vein is near the surface of the skin, the condition is called superficial thrombophlebitis. When it occurs deep within a muscle, it is known as deep vein thrombosis and is much more dangerous. Thrombophlebitis may develop as a result of prolonged inactivity, such as a lengthy period of bed rest or extended travel in a car or plane. The risk for thrombophlebitis is diminished by limiting periods spent sitting or standing in one place. ...


Read More...
 

Varicose Veins

Varicose veins, which appear as unsightly bulges, usually on the legs, may be a medical, as well as cosmetic, problem. Varicose veins affect both men and women. According to the The National Institutes of Health, a quarter of patients who suffer from this condition are men. More women seek help for this disorder than men not only because more women suffer from them, but because in our culture women expose their legs more frequently to public view. Regardless of gender, however, varicose veins can be a serious problem requiring medical intervention. ...


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Varicose Veins FAQs

Varicose veins are enlarged veins near the surface of the skin which may be troubling both cosmetically and medically. They occur most frequently in the legs, but may exist elsewhere in the body. Following are some of the questions frequently asked by patients who suffer with varicose veins. ...


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Venous Thrombectomy

Venous thrombectomy is the surgical removal of a clot within a large vein. This type of clot usually develops as a complication of deep vein thrombosis (DVT), a common but serious condition in which a clot develops in a vein deep within the body. DVT causes vein damage, resulting in impeded blood flow. Although DVT is often asymptomatic, if the clot detaches and travels to the lungs, pulmonary embolism, which is potentially fatal, can develop. Venous thrombectomy is generally viewed as a treatment of last resort, and is sometimes performed only when a patient already has a pulmonary embolism. ...


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Pulmonary Embolism

A pulmonary embolism is a blockage of one or more arteries in the lungs. It is most often caused by a blood clot that travels to the lungs from another part of the body. Blood clots usually form in the veins of the legs or arms, but can dislodge and travel through the bloodstream to the lungs. Although a pulmonary embolism is not usually fatal, it is a complication of deep vein thrombosis, and can be life-threatening. ...


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Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

Benign prostatic hyperplasia, also known as BPH, is an enlarged prostate that commonly causes urinary problems in men aged 50 years and older. It is a common condition that occurs as men age, causing the gland to press against the urethra and cause problems with urination. BPH may also be due to an excess of certain hormones in the body. ...


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Cardiovascular Disease

The cardiovascular system consists of the heart, blood vessels, and the blood that is circulated throughout these vessels. The cardiovascular system is powered by the heart and it is responsible for transporting oxygen, nutrients, and hormones throughout the body. When there is a breakdown or deficiency in the circulatory system, it is often referred to as cardiovascular disease. Cardiovascular disease includes many different conditions that affect the cardiovascular system. Plaque may build up, narrowing the coronary arteries, and decrease blood flow to the heart. Blood clots may form within blood vessels and block blood flow to the heart or brain. In some cases, cardiovascular disease cannot be prevented. However, it can often be initially treated with healthy life style modifications. ...


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Head and Neck Computed Tomography Scan

A head and neck computed tomography (CT) scan is a noninvasive diagnostic procedure that uses multiple X-rays to create cross-sectional views of the head and neck areas. A CT scan of the head and neck enables a radiologist to see images of the neck, skull, brain, sinuses and eye sockets. A CT scan is painless, and its images are clearer and more detailed than those of a traditional X-ray. ...


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May-Thurner Syndrome

May-Thurner syndrome is the result of the compression of the left iliac vein.The right iliac artery, which normally lays over the iliac vein, is the cause of this condition. In this syndrome, the right iliac artery constricts the iliac vein which narrows as a result of the constriction and sometimes scars. An individual with May-Thurner syndrome is at increased risk for developing deep vein thrombosis, or DVT, a potentially serious blood clot that can completely obstruct the circulation of blood in that vein. Such an individual may also develop venous insufficiency as a result of the deep vein thrombosis, known as post-thrombotic syndrome. ...


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Peripheral Artery Disease Testing

Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is often caused by atherosclerosis, an accumulation of plaque in the peripheral arteries, which carry blood to the arms, legs and internal organs. Atherosclerosis causes the peripheral arteries to narrow and harden, and/or become blocked. By reducing the amount of blood that flows to the limbs and organs, atherosclerosis increases the risk of heart attack, stroke and transient ischemic attack. It can also cause limbs to become infected and, in severe cases, gangrenous. ...


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Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm

An aneurysm is a bulge in an artery, caused by a weakening of the blood vessel wall. A thoracic aortic aneurysm forms in the chest, within the body's largest artery, known as the aorta, typically caused by atherosclerosis, or hardening of the arteries. Atherosclerosis is a condition in which a gradual buildup of fats and cholesterol along the artery walls hardens into a substance called plaque. As the amount of plaque increases, it slowly narrows the diameter of the artery, often causing an aneurysm, and contributing to other cardiovascular disorders. ...


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Thoracic Oncology Surgery

Thoracic surgical oncology is a division of general thoracic surgery that provides state-of-the-art care and palliative treatment for patients with cancer of the following:

  • Lung
  • Esophagus
  • Chest

A multidisciplinary approach is taken in providing treatment to patients. Advances in technology have made diagnosis more accurate; therefore, tailoring treatment or a combination of treatments for patients is an increasingly common practice. Therapies may include: ...


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Ultrasound-Guided Biopsy

Ultrasound is an excellent way to evaluate breast abnormalities detected by mammography, but in some cases it is not possible to tell from the imaging studies alone whether a growth is benign or cancerous. Ultrasound-guided breast biopsy is a highly accurate way to evaluate suspicious masses within the breast that are visible on ultrasound, whether or not they can be felt on breast self-examination or clinical examination. ...


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Peripheral Artery Disease - FAQ's

What is peripheral artery disease?

Peripheral artery disease (PAD), also known as peripheral vascular disease (PVD), occurs when peripheral blood vessels are blocked, hardened and narrowed with plaque in a condition called atherosclerosis. This condition reduces the amount of blood that flows to your head, organs and limbs and increases the risk of a heart attack, stroke, and transient ischemic attack. Due to the restricted blood flow, peripheral artery disease increases your risk of infection in your limbs. In severe cases of peripheral artery disease, gangrene can occur. ...


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Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Treatment

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia, also known as BPH, is an enlarged prostate that commonly causes urinary problems in men over the age of 50. It is a common condition that occurs as men age, causing the gland to press against the urethra and cause problems with urination. ...


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3-D Imaging

In medicine, 3-D imaging is the process used to create images of the human body and its internal organs. This type of procedure requires a patient to lie still while a machine circles the patient to record the images. Different techniques are used depending on the part of the body being examined and what variety of image is needed. If nuclear medicine is being used, a contrast dye is administered to help with visibility of the specified areas. ...


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Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm FAQ's

What is an abdominal aortic aneurysm?

An aneurysm is a localized, balloon-like expansion in a blood vessel, caused by weak vessel walls. The abdominal aorta refers to the part of the aorta, the artery that carries oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the legs, between the diaphragm and the legs. That is why the bulge that occurs in the abdominal aorta is called an abdominal aortic aneurysm. ...


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Biliary Drainage

Biliary drainage, also called percutaneous biliary drainage, is a common treatment for clearing gallstones and other blockages from the bile ducts. The bile ducts carry bile from the liver to the gallbladder and small intestine to aid in digestion. ...


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Brain Aneurysm Embolization

A brain aneurysm embolization, also known as endovascular coiling, is a minimally invasive treatment for a brain aneurysm. It can be used to treat aneurysms that have ruptured and those that are intact. During the procedure, a catheter is inserted into the artery and a coil is threaded through the catheter and placed within the aneurysm, cutting off the flow of blood to the aneurysm. The lack of blood flow prevents the aneurysm from rupturing or leaking. Brain aneurysm embolization is an alternative treatment method available to patients that do not qualify for surgery. ...


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Carotid Angioplasty with Stent Placement

Carotid angioplasty and stent placement is a minimally invasive procedure performed to open blocked arteries and improve blood flow. During the procedure, the surgeon will permanently place a stent to keep the artery open, preventing or treating a stroke. The carotid arteries are located on each side of the neck and are the arteries responsible for blood flow to the brain. ...


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Deep Vein Thrombosis

Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) occurs when a blood clot, also known as a thrombus, forms in a vein deep within the body. Such clots most frequently form in the legs, but may occur in other parts of the body. Blood clots can be caused by anything that prevents the blood from circulating normally or clotting properly. Deep vein thrombosis may be caused by extended periods of inactivity; in some cases it may be the result of staying in bed during a long hospital stay or sitting for a long-period of time on an airplane flight. An injury to a vein or certain medical conditions may also cause a blood clot to form. DVT is a serious condition that requires medical treatment, as a blood clot may travel to the blood vessels of the lungs, heart or brain, causing serious complications which can be fatal. ...


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Dialysis FAQs

What is dialysis?

Dialysis is a process that substitutes for kidney function when the normal operation of the kidneys is interrupted. In a healthy body, the kidneys serve to regulate fluid levels in the body, filter waste products and control urination. Dialysis performs these functions when the kidneys fail due to disease or injury and the resultant buildup of waste products in the body threatens to cause illness. ...


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Pelvic Pain Syndrome

Pelvic pain syndrome is a chronic condition that involves persistent pain in the lower-abdominal and pelvic regions. Pelvic pain syndrome may be diagnosed when pelvic pain is chronic, and has been present for more than 6 months. It can affect women both physically and emotionally, leading to sleep disturbances, anxiety, depression and sexual dysfunction. Pelvic pain can be a symptom of an underlying condition, or its cause may remain unknown. Living with pelvic pain syndrome is often difficult, and many women spend years trying to determine its cause. ...


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Varicocele

A varicocele is an enlargement of the veins within the scrotum. Varicoceles are similar to varicose veins in the legs and form for similar reasons. The valves inside the veins become weak and ineffective, enabling a backflow of blood. Varicoceles are common, occurring in about 15 to 20 percent of all males. Almost all varicoceles affect the left testicle. Many varicoceles cause no symptoms, but they may result in discomfort and are a major, though reparable, cause of infertility. When and if varicoceles become troublesome, they can be corrected surgically. ...


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Back Pain Prevention

At some point in their lives, the great majority of adults will suffer from significant low back pain, usually from an injury at work, at home or at play. Orthopedists, chiropractors, physical therapists, coaches and trainers all have helpful advice regarding back pain prevention. By following their directives, people can minimize the possibility of back injury, and keep themselves healthier in the process. ...


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Carotid Artery Ultrasound

A carotid artery ultrasound is a diagnostic procedure that uses high-frequency sound waves to generate images of the neck's internal carotid arteries, which supply oxygen-rich blood to the brain. A carotid artery ultrasound is used to evaluate a patient's risk of stroke or other cardiovascular complications by checking for artery-narrowing plaque buildup. ...


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Brain Arteriovenous Malformation

A brain arteriovenous malformation, also known as a brain AVM, is a congenital condition that involves an abnormal connection between arteries and veins within the brain, causing them to appear tangled and dilated, putting patients at risk for hemorrhaging and other serious complications. AVMs may prevent oxygenated blood from completely circulating throughout the brain, causing symptoms such as headaches and vision problems. AVMs are present at birth and may occur nearly anywhere in the body, but are most common within the brain or spine. The exact cause of this condition is unknown, but it is believed to develop in utero, during fetal development. Brain arteriovenous malformations are more common in males than females and some evidence suggests they may run in families. ...


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Uterine Artery Embolization

Uterine artery embolization, also known as fibroid embolization, is a minimally invasive procedure that blocks blood flow to uterine fibroids, shrinking or destroying the non-cancerous tumors that grow on the uterine walls.

While fibroids do not always cause symptoms, they may lead to future complications and usually require treatment. Traditional treatment can be done with surgery - either a myomectomy to remove the fibroids, or a hysterectomy to remove the entire uterus. Fibroid embolization is a less invasive procedure that is performed under sedation through a blood vessel in the upper thigh. A catheter is first inserted into the blood vessel. A contrast material is then injected into the catheter providing the physician with a visual field of the blood supply to the fibroid. Particles that cut off the blood flow to the fibroid are injected through the catheter which close off the blood supply to the fibroid. ...


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Epidural Steroid Injections

By reducing inflammation, epidural steroid injections (ESIs) are used to temporarily relieve lumbar (lower back), cervical (neck), thoracic (mid-spine) and sciatic-nerve pain. ESIs contain cortisone and an anesthetic, and are delivered directly to the epidural space, which is the area between the spinal cord and the outer membrane that covers the brain and spinal cord (the dura). As a result, they provide more effective and faster pain relief than oral medications. ...


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Gastrostomy

Gastrostomy is a procedure during which a plastic feeding tube is inserted directly into the intestinal tract to provide nourishment when normal nutrition is difficult or impossible. Gastrostomy may conducted during an endoscopy, when the surgeon has inserted a tube through the nose down into the stomach, or through an incision in the skin that penetrates the abdominal wall. Patients using a feeding tube are said to be undergoing gavage or enteral feeding. ...


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Hemodialysis

Hemodialysis ("dialysis," for short) is a blood-cleansing procedure used as treatment for chronic kidney failure. The chief function of the kidneys is to filter waste products from the blood. When the kidneys fail, hemodialysis takes over their function. During hemodialysis, blood is removed from a vein in the patient's arm (the leg is also used, albeit much less frequently), circulated through a filtering machine, and returned to the body through an artery. ...


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Hypercoagulation Disorders

Hypercoagulation disorders, also known as thrombophilia or thrombotic disorders, are abnormalities in which a patient's blood clots too easily, resulting in several possible disease conditions. Coagulation is a vital process. Fortunately, for most people it is also an automatic, dependable one. In some cases, however, hypercoagulation (excessive clotting) occurs and may become life-threatening. ...


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Abdominal MRI Scan

A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scan) of the abdomen is a diagnostic test that produces detailed images of any area within the abdominal cavity. The MRI uses strong magnets and radio waves to create these images, not X-rays. A single MRI produces dozens, or even hundreds, of images, known as slices, that can be stored on a computer or printed out on film. This test is multifunctional and can be used to detect or locate a number of conditions. ...


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Inferior Vena Cava Filter

An inferior vena cava (IVC) filter , is a vascular filter that is inserted through a small incision into the main vein in the abdomen. This vein in the abdomen is called the inferior vena cava. The filter prevents blood clots from breaking loose in leg veins and lodging in the lung. The IVC filter is typically implanted permanently in those patients with a high risk of pulmonary embolism. ...


Read More...
 

Cardiovascular Disease FAQs

The heart is a muscle that pumps oxygenated blood from the arteries throughout the body. Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the buildup of fatty deposits in the coronary arteries, the arteries that supply blood to the heart. These fatty substances, such as cholesterol, fat or cells that collect along the lining of the coronary arteries are called plaque. Most of the plaque build-up, either in the heart or the blood vessels, develops over the course of time. Because the arteries supply oxygen-rich blood to the heart, any blockage left untreated can result in the risk of the patient experiencing a heart attack, stroke or even death. ...


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Cardiovascular Disease

The cardiovascular system consists of the heart, blood vessels, and the blood that is circulated throughout these vessels. The cardiovascular system is powered by the heart and it is responsible for transporting oxygen, nutrients, and hormones throughout the body. When there is a breakdown or deficiency in the circulatory system, it is often referred to as cardiovascular disease. Cardiovascular disease includes many different conditions that affect the cardiovascular system. Plaque may build up, narrowing the coronary arteries, and decrease blood flow to the heart. Blood clots may form within blood vessels and block blood flow to the heart or brain. In some cases, cardiovascular disease cannot be prevented. However, it can often be initially treated with healthy life style modifications. ...


Read More...
 

Facet-Joint Injections

Facet-joint injections are both a minimally invasive treatment for back pain caused by inflamed facet joints, and a diagnostic tool for determining whether facet-joint inflammation is a source of pain. Four facet joints connect each vertebra to the vertebra above and below it. A facet-joint injection, administered into either the joint capsule or its surrounding tissue, combines a long-lasting steroid and a local anesthetic. ...


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Intracranial Aneurysm

An intracranial aneurysm, also known as a cerebral aneurysm, is a blood vessel within the brain that bulges or expands like a balloon and fills with blood. Caused by a weakness in wall of an artery, an intracranial aneurysm may lead to pressure on surrounding nerves and tissue, and an increased risk of rupture or hemorrhage. While this condition can occur anywhere within the brain, intracranial aneurysms most commonly affect the arteries from the underside of the brain to the base of the skull. Intracranial aneurysms can affect individuals of all ages, but are more common in adults than children, and seem to affect women more than men. ...


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Nephrostomy

A nephrostomy, also known as percutaneous nephrostomy, is performed to drain urine from the kidney. This procedure is necessary when urine cannot move through the ureters, bladder, and urethra as it normally does. A nephrostomy is performed by the surgical insertion of a tube directly into the kidney. The function of the nephrostomy is to temporarily drain urine either because its flow has been blocked or because normal urine flow has to be temporarily interrupted for medical reasons. The procedure allows the kidney to function properly and protects it from further damage. It also helps to clear any infection. ...


Read More...
 

Peritoneal Dialysis

Dialysis is a treatment to filter the blood and remove waste products when the kidneys are no longer functioning properly. During hemodialysis, the patient's blood circulates through a machine to be cleansed before re-entering the body. This procedure takes place in a medical setting under the supervision of a healthcare professional. ...


Read More...
 

Stroke

A stroke occurs when there is a reduction in the flow of blood to the brain. The lack of blood supply may be the result of a blockage in an artery or a burst blood vessel in the brain. A stroke deprives brain tissue of oxygen and nutrients, causing brain cells to die. A stroke is a medical emergency and requires immediate attention by a medical professional. Prompt treatment can minimize damage to the brain and prevent further complications. ...


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Uterine Fibroids

Uterine fibroids (myomas) are tumors that grow in the uterine walls. They are usually benign, and vary in size and quantity. The exact cause of uterine fibroids is unknown, but their formation may be affected by genetics, with a woman being more likely to develop them if she has a family member similarly afflicted. Most fibroids do not cause any symptoms and do not require any treatment, although, in some cases, they lead to pregnancy complications. Uterine fibroids are most common in women older than 30, and during the reproductive years. ...


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Arterial Doppler

An arterial doppler is a non-invasive diagnostic test performed to evaluate blood flow in different areas of the arms and legs. Doppler technology uses sound waves to identify differences in blood pressure in various areas and to help diagnose narrowing or blockage of major arteries. Symptoms which may alert patients and doctors to possible trouble may include: ...


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Body Mass Index

Body mass index, or BMI, is a calculation of total body fat based on height and weight. It is used to determine whether a patient is underweight, at a healthy weight or overweight. A high BMI can alert both doctor and patient to potential health risks associated with obesity, such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, breathing difficulties, severe sleep apnea or certain cancers. A low BMI can help to diagnose various illnesses which lead to or are precipitated by malnutrition, such as anemia, eating disorders or other types of cancer. ...


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Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy

A percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, also known as a PEG or gastrostomy tube insertion, is a surgical procedure to insert a feeding tube through the abdomen and into the stomach. A gastrostomy can be either a temporary or long-term treatment, depending on the condition of the patient. ...


Read More...
 

Pain Management

An estimated 70 million Americans suffer from chronic pain. Chronic pain is a major medical condition distinctly different from and more complex than acute pain. Whereas acute pain is a normal sensation triggered in the nervous system to alert the body to possible injury, chronic pain is a state in which pain persists, for many months or years, beyond the normal course required by healing. The effects, both economic and personal, associated with chronic pain can be significant. They include loss of income; debt from costly medical treatment; impaired mobility; and anxiety and depression. ...


Read More...
 

Thrombophlebitis

Thrombophlebitis is a swelling of a vein caused by a clot. It usually occurs in the leg, though it may rarely occur in the arm or neck. When the affected vein is near the surface of the skin, the condition is called superficial thrombophlebitis. When it occurs deep within a muscle, it is known as deep vein thrombosis and is much more dangerous. Thrombophlebitis may develop as a result of prolonged inactivity, such as a lengthy period of bed rest or extended travel in a car or plane. The risk for thrombophlebitis is diminished by limiting periods spent sitting or standing in one place. ...


Read More...
 

Varicose Veins

Varicose veins, which appear as unsightly bulges, usually on the legs, may be a medical, as well as cosmetic, problem. Varicose veins affect both men and women. According to the The National Institutes of Health, a quarter of patients who suffer from this condition are men. More women seek help for this disorder than men not only because more women suffer from them, but because in our culture women expose their legs more frequently to public view. Regardless of gender, however, varicose veins can be a serious problem requiring medical intervention. ...


Read More...
 

Brachytherapy

Brachytherapy, also called internal radiation to distinguish it from external beam radiation, is an alternative form of radiation therapy to treat malignancies. It delivers X-ray beams directly to the site of a tumor, placing radioactive material inside the body. This allows for a higher total dose of radiation over a shorter time frame than traditional radiation therapy. It also protects normal tissue from unnecessary exposure to radioactive material. ...


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Coronary Artery Disease

Coronary artery disease is a buildup of fatty deposits in the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart. This buildup of fat, cholesterol and calcium, known collectively as plaque, can cause a hardening and narrowing of the arteries that restricts blood from reaching the heart. Blood clots can also form and completely block the artery. Coronary artery disease develops gradually, and can eventually lead to a heart attack or heart failure. Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of death in the United States for both men and women. ...


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Fluoroscopy FAQs

Fluoroscopy is an X-ray procedure that captures moving images in the body. It allows doctors to evaluate the functioning of almost all the body's systems, including the cardiovascular, urinary, digestive, respiratory, musculoskeletal and reproductive. In addition to being used as a diagnostic tool, fluoroscopy is often used therapeutically, and to assist in complicated surgical procedures. ...


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Sacroiliac-Joint Steroid Injections

Sacroiliac-joint steroid injections help to diagnose and relieve lower-back pain caused by problems with one or both of the sacroiliac joints, which connect the spine's base (sacrum) to the pelvis's ilium bones. If one or both of the sacroiliac joints is inflamed (sacroiliac-joint dysfunction), a patient can experience pain in the buttocks and lower back that worsens when running or standing. Sacroiliac-joint dysfunction can be caused by osteoarthritis, traumatic injury, pregnancy, inflammatory joint disease, or underlying structural abnormalities. ...


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Breast MRI Scan

A breast MRI (magnetic-resonance imaging) scan is a noninvasive diagnostic imaging test that produces multiple cross-sectional images of the breast to help screen for breast cancer.

This advanced procedure is capable of detecting certain abnormalities that may not be found by other imaging techniques. It is the only procedure to produce images of both hard and soft tissue. An MRI scan is often performed after a mammogram, and may be helpful in staging breast cancer. ...


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Mammography FAQs

A mammogram is an X-ray examination of the breast performed to detect breast cancer in its earliest stages, often before any signs or symptoms of the disease are present. Mammograms are an effective way to detect cancer early with the goal of successfully treating and beating it.

Who is this procedure for?

A mammogram is a useful tool in detecting breast cancer because it can show abnormalities, like a tumor, in the breast tissue long before they can be felt. Screening and diagnostic mammography can aid in the detection and diagnosis of breast diseases, lumps, cysts and benign and malignant tumors. They can also detect calcium deposits that may indicate breast cancer. ...


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Varicose Veins FAQs

Varicose veins are enlarged veins near the surface of the skin which may be troubling both cosmetically and medically. They occur most frequently in the legs, but may exist elsewhere in the body. Following are some of the questions frequently asked by patients who suffer with varicose veins. ...


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Computed Tomography Scan

Computed tomography (CT) scan is a sophisticated X-ray imaging system that scans thin "slices" of the body on all sides, then combines those slices into a highly detailed, three-dimensional digital image of hard and soft tissues in the body. The procedure is non-invasive, requires minimal radiation exposure, and can simultaneously depict tissues of different densities, which is not possible with traditional X-ray methods. ...


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Nutrition

Proper diet is essential to maintaining good health. Keeping the body well-nourished and at a healthy weight has been proven to improve mood, quality of life and longevity. It may also go a long way in preventing or controlling many serious illnesses. Obesity, which has now reached epidemic proportions in the United States, and an enemy of good health, can be kept at bay through proper nutrition along with a program of healthy exercise. ...


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Venous Thrombectomy

Venous thrombectomy is the surgical removal of a clot within a large vein. This type of clot usually develops as a complication of deep vein thrombosis (DVT), a common but serious condition in which a clot develops in a vein deep within the body. DVT causes vein damage, resulting in impeded blood flow. Although DVT is often asymptomatic, if the clot detaches and travels to the lungs, pulmonary embolism, which is potentially fatal, can develop. Venous thrombectomy is generally viewed as a treatment of last resort, and is sometimes performed only when a patient already has a pulmonary embolism. ...


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Digital Fluoroscopy

Digital fluoroscopy is a special kind of X-ray that produces video imaging of the internal organs in motion. Is may be used to observe the functioning of a particular organ or an entire body system for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Before a patient undergoes a fluoroscopic examination, a contrast material is administered either orally, intravenously or by enema, in order to highlight the area of the body being X-rayed. ...


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Exercise

Regular exercise has many benefits that may help individuals live longer, healthier lives. Individuals who engage in regular moderately intense physical activity may reduce their risks of developing heart disease and other serious illnesses.

Benefits of an Exercise Routine

Regular physical activity can improve health and lengthen life expectancy by helping a patient to achieve and maintain an appropriate weight, become energetic and fit, strengthen the immune system, and preserve emotional balance. ...


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Pulmonary Embolism

A pulmonary embolism is a blockage of one or more arteries in the lungs. It is most often caused by a blood clot that travels to the lungs from another part of the body. Blood clots usually form in the veins of the legs or arms, but can dislodge and travel through the bloodstream to the lungs. Although a pulmonary embolism is not usually fatal, it is a complication of deep vein thrombosis, and can be life-threatening. ...


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Digital Mammography

A mammogram is an X-ray examination of the breast. It is performed to detect breast cancer in its earliest stages, often before any signs or symptoms of the disease are present. A digital mammogram can offer patients faster and more accurate results than a traditional X-ray exam. A digital mammogram is similar to a traditional mammogram, and X-ray technology is still used to produce the image of the breast. However, instead of capturing the image on film, digital mammography captures the image directly to the doctor's computer for fast, easy viewing. The X-ray waves are converted into electrical signals, similar to the way they are in a digital camera. Compression of the breast is still needed to produce an accurate image. Digital mammograms are approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration, and offer results comparable to, if not better than, conventional exams. ...


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Spider Veins FAQs

Spider veins, also known as telengiectasias, are a very common problem, aesthetically troubling to many people. Following are some frequently asked questions about spider veins.

What are spider veins?

Spider veins are veins in which the valves have stopped functioning properly. When the valves of a vein are working correctly, they keep blood flowing in one direction. When they become damaged, they allow blood to flow backwards and pool, causing the walls of the vein to distend and enlarge. This is called venous reflux. When smaller, more superficial veins are involved, a web of red or blue thin branches appear on the surface of the skin, usually on the legs or face. These are referred to as spider veins. ...


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Digital Radiography

Digital X-rays are performed similarly to conventional X-rays but use a special imaging detector that "reads" the body part rather than exposing it on film. This is the same technique used by digital cameras. The images produced by digital X-rays can be viewed on a computer, which allows for faster results and convenient delivery to other doctors. ...


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Digital X-ray

Digital X-rays are a sophisticated type of X-ray imaging in which digital sensors substitute for traditional photographic film. All X-rays make use of electromagnetic waves to produce images of internal parts of the body. For most purposes, digital X-rays are an improvement over conventional X-rays because they are more efficient and provide more easily transferable computer images of bones and other internal organs. With digital X-rays, the images are available immediately for viewing, with no development step in between, eliminating the need for photo development, transport of the film, and additional transport of the film to the radiologist. ...


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May-Thurner Syndrome

May-Thurner syndrome is the result of the compression of the left iliac vein.The right iliac artery, which normally lays over the iliac vein, is the cause of this condition. In this syndrome, the right iliac artery constricts the iliac vein which narrows as a result of the constriction and sometimes scars. An individual with May-Thurner syndrome is at increased risk for developing deep vein thrombosis, or DVT, a potentially serious blood clot that can completely obstruct the circulation of blood in that vein. Such an individual may also develop venous insufficiency as a result of the deep vein thrombosis, known as post-thrombotic syndrome. ...


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Peripheral Artery Disease Testing

Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is often caused by atherosclerosis, an accumulation of plaque in the peripheral arteries, which carry blood to the arms, legs and internal organs. Atherosclerosis causes the peripheral arteries to narrow and harden, and/or become blocked. By reducing the amount of blood that flows to the limbs and organs, atherosclerosis increases the risk of heart attack, stroke and transient ischemic attack. It can also cause limbs to become infected and, in severe cases, gangrenous. ...


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Doppler Ultrasound

A Doppler ultrasound is a noninvasive diagnostic imaging test that uses sound waves to evaluate blood flow through the major vessels. There are many benefits to Doppler ultrasound: It is the only type of ultrasound capable of evaluating blood vessels; it does not utilize any ionizing radiation; and it can easily be performed in a doctor's office. In the hands of a skilled practitioner, a Doppler ultrasound provides extremely accurate results, although it is occasionally possible for a bone to block part of an image. A Doppler ultrasound procedure is considered risk-free. ...


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Duplex Ultrasound

The duplex ultrasound is a diagnostic test administered to assess blood circulation. It combines the techniques of traditional ultrasound with those of Doppler ultrasound. Traditional ultrasound uses sound waves to create black-and-white images of the veins and arteries. Doppler technology, on the other hand, uses sound waves to track circulating blood, generating color images of blood as it flows through the body. Using this combination of techniques, duplex ultrasound helps to distinguish several important characteristics of the blood vessels, including speed and direction of blood flow and diameter of the vessels themselves. Duplex ultrasound can also detect the presence and extent of any obstruction in the blood vessels, such as cholesterol deposits or blood clots. ...


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Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm

An aneurysm is a bulge in an artery, caused by a weakening of the blood vessel wall. A thoracic aortic aneurysm forms in the chest, within the body's largest artery, known as the aorta, typically caused by atherosclerosis, or hardening of the arteries. Atherosclerosis is a condition in which a gradual buildup of fats and cholesterol along the artery walls hardens into a substance called plaque. As the amount of plaque increases, it slowly narrows the diameter of the artery, often causing an aneurysm, and contributing to other cardiovascular disorders. ...


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Thoracic Oncology Surgery

Thoracic surgical oncology is a division of general thoracic surgery that provides state-of-the-art care and palliative treatment for patients with cancer of the following:

  • Lung
  • Esophagus
  • Chest

A multidisciplinary approach is taken in providing treatment to patients. Advances in technology have made diagnosis more accurate; therefore, tailoring treatment or a combination of treatments for patients is an increasingly common practice. Therapies may include: ...


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Fluoroscopy

Fluoroscopy is an X-ray imaging technique that produces a video of internal body structures in motion. During a fluoroscopy, X-ray beams are passed through the region of the body that is being examined, producing video images that are transmitted to a monitor. In this way, the targeted area can be viewed in detail. Fluoroscopy is an effective tool to evaluate the function of almost all the body's systems, including the digestive, urinary, cardiovascular, respiratory, musculoskeletal and reproductive. Fluoroscopy can be used on its own as a diagnostic tool, or in combination with other diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. ...


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X-Rays

X-rays are efficient, painless diagnostic tests that produce images of the interior of the body. X-ray beams pass through the body, but they are absorbed in different amounts depending on the density of the tissue they pass through. Dense materials, such as bone and metal, show up as white on X-rays. The air in the lungs shows up as black. Fat and muscle appear as varying shades of gray. ...


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Ultrasound-Guided Biopsy

Ultrasound is an excellent way to evaluate breast abnormalities detected by mammography, but in some cases it is not possible to tell from the imaging studies alone whether a growth is benign or cancerous. Ultrasound-guided breast biopsy is a highly accurate way to evaluate suspicious masses within the breast that are visible on ultrasound, whether or not they can be felt on breast self-examination or clinical examination. ...


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Head and Neck Computed Tomography Scan

A head and neck computed tomography (CT) scan is a noninvasive diagnostic procedure that uses multiple X-rays to create cross-sectional views of the head and neck areas. A CT scan of the head and neck enables a radiologist to see images of the neck, skull, brain, sinuses and eye sockets. A CT scan is painless, and its images are clearer and more detailed than those of a traditional X-ray. ...


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Transient Ischemic Attack

A transient ischemic attack (TIA) occurs when the blood flow to the brain stops for a brief period of time. A TIA is a stroke-like event caused by improper blood flow in the carotid artery. The carotid artery is located in the neck and it carries blood from the heart to the brain. When blood flow is disrupted or blocked within these arteries, stroke-like symptoms may occur. Symptoms of a TIA are similar to those of a stroke, but they do not last as long, as the blockage within the artery may break-up or dissolve. In some individuals, a transient ischemic attack may be a warning sign that a stroke may occur in the future. ...


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Venography

A venography, also known as a venogram, is an X-ray test that uses a a contrast dye that is injected into the body, to show how blood flows through the veins. The dye allows the veins to be viewed more clearly on the X-ray images. A venogram may be used view the veins and blood flow in certain areas of the body to: ...


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Head and Neck MRI

A head and neck magnetic resonance imaging scan (MRI) uses a magnetic field, radiofrequency impulses and a computer to produce detailed images of the organs, soft tissues, and bones within the head and neck region. Once the images are created, they can be viewed on a computer monitor, copied to a CD or transmitted electronically. ...


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Breast Biopsy

A biopsy is a minimally invasive procedure that removes a sample of abnormal tissue to determine whether it is benign or malignant. A biopsy can be performed on many different areas of the body, but is commonly used to diagnose, and sometimes treat, lumps found in breast tissue.

A breast biopsy may be performed after abnormalities have been detected in the breast as a result of a breast self-exam, mammogram or other imaging procedure. In addition to its diagnostic purpose, a biopsy can remove small tumors or other abnormalities that are found during the procedure, eliminating the need for additional surgery. ...


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Magnetic Resonance Angiography

Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) is a diagnostic test that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to create images of blood vessels and blood flow within the body. MRA can help doctors detect, diagnose and treat blood vessel disorders and diseases such as stroke, aneurysm, clots, obstructions, and vascular disease in the heart, head, major organs, and extremities. ...


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Mammogram

A mammogram is an X-ray examination of the breast that is performed to detect breast cancer in its earliest stages, often before any signs or symptoms are present. Mammograms allow early detection of small tumors, which are easier to treat than larger, more developed ones. They can also detect ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), small abnormal growths in a breast's milk ducts. Early removal of these growths helps to reduce the risk of future problems. ...


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Vascular Pain

Vascular pain is a serious medical condition affecting millions of people in the United States each year. Such pain may be chronic, acute or sub-acute and may range in severity from mild to debilitating. The cause of the pain is not always clear, although it may often result from vascular abnormalities in which blood vessels do not function properly and blood flow is impeded. When this happens, tissues, organs or nerves in the area may be adversely affected. When vascular pain occurs in the legs, it is called claudication. ...


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Claudication

Claudication is pain in the legs caused by too little blood flow. It is generally associated with conditions such as peripheral artery disease or arteriosclerosis. While it primarily occurs in the legs, claudication may also affect the arms. If left untreated, claudication may have serious medical consequences. ...


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MRI

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive, radiation-free scanning technology that is used to view detailed images of the tissues and organs within the body. During an MRI test, radio waves and magnetic fields are used to produce clear and detailed three-dimensional images of organs, as well as the hard and soft tissues throughout the body. ...


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Open MRI Scan

Magnetic resonance imaging, also known as MRI, is a non-invasive, radiation-free scanning technology that uses radio waves and magnetic fields to produce clear and detailed three-dimensional images of organs and hard and soft tissues throughout the body. While a safe and effective diagnostic test, an MRI can be intimidating to some patients because it requires that the patient be enclosed in a narrow tunnel for the duration of the procedure, typically 30 minutes to 1 hour. The open MRI offers an option for the same accurate imaging without the confinement that some people find disturbing. Open MRI scans are not available at all testing locations ...


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Perforator Vein Ablation

The veins that connect the deep and superficial veins are called perforator veins. Like other veins in the body, they may weaken and become damaged. If their valves malfunction and allow a back flow of blood, called venous reflux, varicose veins may develop. Varicose veins appear as twisted ropes under the surface of the skin. They usually occur in the legs due to the fact that there they are working against gravity. While patients with varicose veins may be asymptomatic, at least initially, varicose veins may cause troubling symptoms, such as pain, swelling, itching or bleeding. Whether they cause medical symptoms of not, for many patients varicose veins may present daunting cosmetic issues. Patients with varicose veins should be thoroughly checked since the damaged veins may be an indication of circulatory problems elsewhere in the body. ...


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Reticular Veins

Reticular veins are damaged veins that are larger than spider veins but smaller than varicose veins. While they may appear blue or greenish and somewhat enlarged beneath the surface of the skin, they are not ropy and bulging like varicose veins. Reticular veins can appear occasionally on the face, but are most frequently found on the outer thighs or on the backs of the thighs and knees. Usually only of cosmetic concern, reticular veins may also cause patients to experience tenderness, pain, burning or itching in the affected area. ...


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On-Site X-rays

X-rays are imaging tests that produce images of the structures inside the body. X-rays use a type of radiation called electromagnetic waves to produce these internal images. As these waves penetrate the body, they are absorbed in different amounts by different body tissues. Bones are dense and absorb X-ray waves very well and the images appear very clearly, but soft tissues do not absorb the X-rays as well and are therefore harder to see on an X-ray image. Often used to confirm a fracture or a break in a bone, X-rays may be used to investigate lung conditions, digestive tract problems, arthritis, heart failure, breast cancer and other conditions. ...


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Pelvic MRI

A pelvic MRI is a minimally invasive diagnostic test performed to obtain images of the pelvis, the area between the hipbones. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive, radiation-free scanning technology that is used to view detailed images of the tissues and organs within the body. During an MRI scan, radio waves and magnetic fields are used to produce clear and detailed three-dimensional images of organs, as well as the hard and soft tissues throughout the body. ...


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Peripheral Artery Disease

Peripheral artery disease, also known as PAD, is a common vascular condition involving a buildup of plaque within the peripheral arteries of the limbs, usually the legs and feet. Plaque is an accumulation of fat, cholesterol, calcium and other substances in the blood. The buildup of plaque can severely narrow or block the arteries and limit the flow of oxygen-rich blood to the body. PAD may be a symptom of atherosclerosis, a specific form of arteriosclerosis, which leads to a more widespread occurrence of plaque buildup in arteries. ...


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Laser Atherectomy for Peripheral Artery Disease

Laser atherectomy is a new and efficient method of removing plaque from blood vessels clogged by peripheral artery disease. Peripheral artery disease or PAD, also known as peripheral vascular disease or PVD, is caused by atherosclerosis, a condition in which the arteries become clogged with plaque and blood flow is impeded. PAD most frequently occurs in the legs, but can occur elsewhere in the body. Arterial plaque, made up of cholesterol and other substances, usually forms in arteries already narrowed and hardened by the process of arteriosclerosis, a normal part of aging. ...


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PET Scan

Positron emission tomography, also known as a PET scan, is a diagnostic test that captures images of biological functions. The images provide information about cell biochemistry and metabolism that can help diagnose a variety of diseases and other conditions. PET imaging measures energy emitted from a radioactive substance that is ingested prior to the procedure. The injected material, detected through radioactive particles called positrons, interacts with body tissue to produce gamma radiation, which provides information about cell biochemistry and metabolism. ...


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Peripheral Stenting

Stenting is a common treatment method used to expend arteries within the lower extremities affected by peripheral artery disease (PAD). This condition involves blockage, hardening or narrowing of blood vessels throughout the body as a result of a buildup of plaque. This reduced or blocked blood supply can significantly increase a person's risk of having a heart attack or stroke. ...


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Saline Contrast Bubble Study

A saline contrast bubble study is performed as part of an echocardiogram (ECG) to detect a atrial or ventricular septal defect, which is an opening between the two sides of the heart. The test may also be conduction on patients who have had a stroke or a transient ischemic attack (TIA). ...


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Transcranial Doppler Ultrasound

A Transcranial Doppler, or TCD, is a diagnostic test using ultrasound waves to produce images of the blood flow within the brain's arteries. This procedure is often done in conjunction with a carotid Doppler ultrasound.

The results of a TCD ultrasound are used to assess the risk of a stroke. This procedure can also be used during surgical procedures to monitor blood flow in the brain. ...


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Nuclear Testing

Nuclear medicine uses images of internal organs and body functions to diagnose and treat various diseases and conditions. These images are produced by injecting or ingesting a radioactive substance prior to an imaging exam and are created by the energy emitted by the radioactive substances. Scans may be performed in conjunction with other types of imaging tests such as CT scans, MRI scans, or X-rays. ...


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Nuclear Medicine

Nuclear medicine is a division of radiology that uses small amounts of radioactive material to evaluate, diagnose and treat disease conditions. Nuclear medicine examinations and imaging tests use radioactive substances to create uniquely detailed images that enable physicians to examine both the anatomy and function of various regions of the body. ...


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Ultrasound

An ultrasound, also known as a sonogram, is a fast, painless imaging technique that produces images of the internal organs through the use of high-frequency sound waves. It is especially useful for examining the breasts, bladder, thyroid, abdominal organs and male and female reproductive organs, and for obtaining images of the fetus in the womb. ...


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Magnetic Resonance Angiography FAQs

Magnetic resonance angiography, also known as MRA, uses a magnetic field, radio waves and contrast material to produce detailed images of blood vessels throughout the body. This procedure does not use ionizing radiation, and can effectively detect, diagnose and aid in the treatment of heart disorders, stroke and other blood vessel diseases. ...


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Venous Ultrasound

Venous ultrasound is used to diagnose vascular conditions in the legs. This procedure can effectively detect blood clots in the legs that may cause dangerous conditions such as deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism. While many diseased leg veins are visible on the skin in the form of varicose or spider veins, some patients may experience significant venous reflux, or back flow, that can only be detected through ultrasound imaging. A venous ultrasound shows a thorough, detailed image of the veins, along with the direction of blood flow, to help accurately diagnose vascular conditions. ...


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Intracranial Arterial Stenosis

Intracranial arterial stenosis is the a narrowing of an artery within the brain. This condition can significantly affect blood flow and lead to a stroke. Intracranial arterial stenosis is caused by a buildup of plaque in the wall of the blood vessels, which narrows the arteries and blood passageways, resulting in decreased blood flow to certain areas of the brain. Stroke may be a result of intracranial arterial stenosis because of plaque that may completely block an artery, or a piece of plaque that may break off and travel to clog an artery supplying blood flow to the brain or another vital organ. Intracranial arterial stenosis is more prevalent among African-Americans and people of Asian, or Hispanic heritage. ...


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Nuclear Cardiology

Nuclear cardiology uses nuclear-imaging tests and studies to diagnose and assess conditions related to the heart. Nuclear-imaging tests may be used to assess blood flow, evaluate the pumping function of the heart, view the arteries of the heart, or determine the cause of a heart attack. ...


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Venous Interventions

Venous interventions are minimally invasive treatment options for patients with blocked or narrowed veins. These treatments are designed to either open up or seal off the diseased veins in order to prevent serious complications or permanent damage, while avoiding the need for surgery. ...


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Venous Insufficiency

Venous insufficiency is a chronic condition that involves a backwards flow of blood though the veins in the leg as a result of damaged valves. This back flow is called venous reflux. When blood cannot flow efficiently back to the heart, it begins to pool in the leg. Left untreated, venous insufficiency can lead to progressive vascular disease, causing pain, swelling, skin changes and eventual tissue breakdown. Chronic venous insufficiency is a long-term condition. It occurs because a vein is partly blocked, or blood is leaking around the valves. ...


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Liver Biopsy

A liver biopsy is a diagnostic procedure used to examine liver tissue and determine the cause of any abnormalities. This procedure is often performed after another test, such as a blood test or imaging test, indicates a problem with the liver. A liver biopsy can diagnose many problems, including cirrhosis, hepatitis B or C, and liver cancer. Results from a liver biopsy are available within a few days to several weeks. ...


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Testicular Biopsy

A testicular biopsy is a surgical procedure during which a small amount of tissue is removed from the testicles for microscopic examination. This procedure may be performed for a number of reasons: to help determine the cause of male infertility, to remove sperm to be used for assistive reproductive technology (ART), or to determine whether a testicular lump is malignant or benign. When a testicular biopsy is performed to assist in fertility, tissue containing sperm removed during the biopsy may be used for in vitro fertilization (IVF) or for sperm donation. When there is a question of malignancy, the surgeon's goal is to detect whether any cancerous tissue is present. ...


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Peripheral Artery Disease - FAQ's

What is peripheral artery disease?

Peripheral artery disease (PAD), also known as peripheral vascular disease (PVD), occurs when peripheral blood vessels are blocked, hardened and narrowed with plaque in a condition called atherosclerosis. This condition reduces the amount of blood that flows to your head, organs and limbs and increases the risk of a heart attack, stroke, and transient ischemic attack. Due to the restricted blood flow, peripheral artery disease increases your risk of infection in your limbs. In severe cases of peripheral artery disease, gangrene can occur. ...


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Watch: Deep Venous Thrombosis | DVT | Dr. Arash Padidar 

Deep Vein Thrombosis | DVT

Schedule Appointment | (408) 918-0405
 

Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) occurs when a blood clot, also known as a thrombus, forms in a vein deep within the body. Such clots most frequently form in the legs, but may occur in other parts of the body. Blood clots can be caused by anything that prevents the blood from circulating normally or clotting properly. Deep vein thrombosis may be caused by extended periods of inactivity; in some cases it may be the result of staying in bed during a long hospital stay or sitting for a long-period of time on an airplane flight. An injury to a vein or certain medical conditions may also cause a blood clot to form. DVT is a serious condition that requires medical treatment, as a blood clot may travel to the blood vessels of the lungs, heart or brain, causing serious complications which can be fatal. ...


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Biliary Drainage

Biliary drainage, also called percutaneous biliary drainage, is a common treatment for clearing gallstones and other blockages from the bile ducts. The bile ducts carry bile from the liver to the gallbladder and small intestine to aid in digestion. ...


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Brain Aneurysm Embolization

A brain aneurysm embolization, also known as endovascular coiling, is a minimally invasive treatment for a brain aneurysm. It can be used to treat aneurysms that have ruptured and those that are intact. During the procedure, a catheter is inserted into the artery and a coil is threaded through the catheter and placed within the aneurysm, cutting off the flow of blood to the aneurysm. The lack of blood flow prevents the aneurysm from rupturing or leaking. Brain aneurysm embolization is an alternative treatment method available to patients that do not qualify for surgery. ...


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Carotid Angioplasty with Stent Placement

Carotid angioplasty and stent placement is a minimally invasive procedure performed to open blocked arteries and improve blood flow. During the procedure, the surgeon will permanently place a stent to keep the artery open, preventing or treating a stroke. The carotid arteries are located on each side of the neck and are the arteries responsible for blood flow to the brain. ...


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Computed Tomography Scan

Computed tomography (CT) scan is a sophisticated X-ray imaging system that scans thin "slices" of the body on all sides, then combines those slices into a highly detailed, three-dimensional digital image of hard and soft tissues in the body. The procedure is non-invasive, requires minimal radiation exposure, and can simultaneously depict tissues of different densities, which is not possible with traditional X-ray methods. ...


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Dialysis FAQs

What is dialysis?

Dialysis is a process that substitutes for kidney function when the normal operation of the kidneys is interrupted. In a healthy body, the kidneys serve to regulate fluid levels in the body, filter waste products and control urination. Dialysis performs these functions when the kidneys fail due to disease or injury and the resultant buildup of waste products in the body threatens to cause illness. ...


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Pelvic Pain Syndrome

Pelvic pain syndrome is a chronic condition that involves persistent pain in the lower-abdominal and pelvic regions. Pelvic pain syndrome may be diagnosed when pelvic pain is chronic, and has been present for more than 6 months. It can affect women both physically and emotionally, leading to sleep disturbances, anxiety, depression and sexual dysfunction. Pelvic pain can be a symptom of an underlying condition, or its cause may remain unknown. Living with pelvic pain syndrome is often difficult, and many women spend years trying to determine its cause. ...


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Varicocele

A varicocele is an enlargement of the veins within the scrotum. Varicoceles are similar to varicose veins in the legs and form for similar reasons. The valves inside the veins become weak and ineffective, enabling a backflow of blood. Varicoceles are common, occurring in about 15 to 20 percent of all males. Almost all varicoceles affect the left testicle. Many varicoceles cause no symptoms, but they may result in discomfort and are a major, though reparable, cause of infertility. When and if varicoceles become troublesome, they can be corrected surgically. ...


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Carotid Artery Ultrasound

A carotid artery ultrasound is a diagnostic procedure that uses high-frequency sound waves to generate images of the neck's internal carotid arteries, which supply oxygen-rich blood to the brain. A carotid artery ultrasound is used to evaluate a patient's risk of stroke or other cardiovascular complications by checking for artery-narrowing plaque buildup. ...


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Brain Arteriovenous Malformation

A brain arteriovenous malformation, also known as a brain AVM, is a congenital condition that involves an abnormal connection between arteries and veins within the brain, causing them to appear tangled and dilated, putting patients at risk for hemorrhaging and other serious complications. AVMs may prevent oxygenated blood from completely circulating throughout the brain, causing symptoms such as headaches and vision problems. AVMs are present at birth and may occur nearly anywhere in the body, but are most common within the brain or spine. The exact cause of this condition is unknown, but it is believed to develop in utero, during fetal development. Brain arteriovenous malformations are more common in males than females and some evidence suggests they may run in families. ...


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Uterine Artery Embolization

Uterine artery embolization, also known as fibroid embolization, is a minimally invasive procedure that blocks blood flow to uterine fibroids, shrinking or destroying the non-cancerous tumors that grow on the uterine walls.

While fibroids do not always cause symptoms, they may lead to future complications and usually require treatment. Traditional treatment can be done with surgery - either a myomectomy to remove the fibroids, or a hysterectomy to remove the entire uterus. Fibroid embolization is a less invasive procedure that is performed under sedation through a blood vessel in the upper thigh. A catheter is first inserted into the blood vessel. A contrast material is then injected into the catheter providing the physician with a visual field of the blood supply to the fibroid. Particles that cut off the blood flow to the fibroid are injected through the catheter which close off the blood supply to the fibroid. ...


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Epidural Steroid Injections

By reducing inflammation, epidural steroid injections (ESIs) are used to temporarily relieve lumbar (lower back), cervical (neck), thoracic (mid-spine) and sciatic-nerve pain. ESIs contain cortisone and an anesthetic, and are delivered directly to the epidural space, which is the area between the spinal cord and the outer membrane that covers the brain and spinal cord (the dura). As a result, they provide more effective and faster pain relief than oral medications. ...


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Gastrostomy

Gastrostomy is a procedure during which a plastic feeding tube is inserted directly into the intestinal tract to provide nourishment when normal nutrition is difficult or impossible. Gastrostomy may conducted during an endoscopy, when the surgeon has inserted a tube through the nose down into the stomach, or through an incision in the skin that penetrates the abdominal wall. Patients using a feeding tube are said to be undergoing gavage or enteral feeding. ...


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Head and Neck Computed Tomography Scan

A head and neck computed tomography (CT) scan is a noninvasive diagnostic procedure that uses multiple X-rays to create cross-sectional views of the head and neck areas. A CT scan of the head and neck enables a radiologist to see images of the neck, skull, brain, sinuses and eye sockets. A CT scan is painless, and its images are clearer and more detailed than those of a traditional X-ray. ...


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Hemodialysis

Hemodialysis ("dialysis," for short) is a blood-cleansing procedure used as treatment for chronic kidney failure. The chief function of the kidneys is to filter waste products from the blood. When the kidneys fail, hemodialysis takes over their function. During hemodialysis, blood is removed from a vein in the patient's arm (the leg is also used, albeit much less frequently), circulated through a filtering machine, and returned to the body through an artery. ...


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Hypercoagulation Disorders

Hypercoagulation disorders, also known as thrombophilia or thrombotic disorders, are abnormalities in which a patient's blood clots too easily, resulting in several possible disease conditions. Coagulation is a vital process. Fortunately, for most people it is also an automatic, dependable one. In some cases, however, hypercoagulation (excessive clotting) occurs and may become life-threatening. ...


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MRI

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive, radiation-free scanning technology that is used to view detailed images of the tissues and organs within the body. During an MRI test, radio waves and magnetic fields are used to produce clear and detailed three-dimensional images of organs, as well as the hard and soft tissues throughout the body. ...


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X-Ray 

X-rays are a form of electromagnetic radiation, similar to visible light. Unlike light, however, x-rays have higher energy and can pass through most objects, including the body. Medical x-rays are used to generate images of tissues and structures inside the body.

X-Ray Purpose

When X-rays are used ...


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Inferior Vena Cava Filter

An inferior vena cava (IVC) filter , is a vascular filter that is inserted through a small incision into the main vein in the abdomen. This vein in the abdomen is called the inferior vena cava. The filter prevents blood clots from breaking loose in leg veins and lodging in the lung. The IVC filter is typically implanted permanently in those patients with a high risk of pulmonary embolism. ...


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Facet-Joint Injections

Facet-joint injections are both a minimally invasive treatment for back pain caused by inflamed facet joints, and a diagnostic tool for determining whether facet-joint inflammation is a source of pain. Four facet joints connect each vertebra to the vertebra above and below it. A facet-joint injection, administered into either the joint capsule or its surrounding tissue, combines a long-lasting steroid and a local anesthetic. ...


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Intracranial Aneurysm

An intracranial aneurysm, also known as a cerebral aneurysm, is a blood vessel within the brain that bulges or expands like a balloon and fills with blood. Caused by a weakness in wall of an artery, an intracranial aneurysm may lead to pressure on surrounding nerves and tissue, and an increased risk of rupture or hemorrhage. While this condition can occur anywhere within the brain, intracranial aneurysms most commonly affect the arteries from the underside of the brain to the base of the skull. Intracranial aneurysms can affect individuals of all ages, but are more common in adults than children, and seem to affect women more than men. ...


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Nephrostomy

A nephrostomy, also known as percutaneous nephrostomy, is performed to drain urine from the kidney. This procedure is necessary when urine cannot move through the ureters, bladder, and urethra as it normally does. A nephrostomy is performed by the surgical insertion of a tube directly into the kidney. The function of the nephrostomy is to temporarily drain urine either because its flow has been blocked or because normal urine flow has to be temporarily interrupted for medical reasons. The procedure allows the kidney to function properly and protects it from further damage. It also helps to clear any infection. ...


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Peritoneal Dialysis

Dialysis is a treatment to filter the blood and remove waste products when the kidneys are no longer functioning properly. During hemodialysis, the patient's blood circulates through a machine to be cleansed before re-entering the body. This procedure takes place in a medical setting under the supervision of a healthcare professional. ...


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Stroke

A stroke occurs when there is a reduction in the flow of blood to the brain. The lack of blood supply may be the result of a blockage in an artery or a burst blood vessel in the brain. A stroke deprives brain tissue of oxygen and nutrients, causing brain cells to die. A stroke is a medical emergency and requires immediate attention by a medical professional. Prompt treatment can minimize damage to the brain and prevent further complications. ...


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Uterine Fibroids

Uterine fibroids (myomas) are tumors that grow in the uterine walls. They are usually benign, and vary in size and quantity. The exact cause of uterine fibroids is unknown, but their formation may be affected by genetics, with a woman being more likely to develop them if she has a family member similarly afflicted. Most fibroids do not cause any symptoms and do not require any treatment, although, in some cases, they lead to pregnancy complications. Uterine fibroids are most common in women older than 30, and during the reproductive years. ...


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Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm FAQ's

What is an abdominal aortic aneurysm?

An aneurysm is a localized, balloon-like expansion in a blood vessel, caused by weak vessel walls. The abdominal aorta refers to the part of the aorta, the artery that carries oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the legs, between the diaphragm and the legs. That is why the bulge that occurs in the abdominal aorta is called an abdominal aortic aneurysm. ...


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Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy

A percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, also known as a PEG or gastrostomy tube insertion, is a surgical procedure to insert a feeding tube through the abdomen and into the stomach. A gastrostomy can be either a temporary or long-term treatment, depending on the condition of the patient. ...


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Pain Management

An estimated 70 million Americans suffer from chronic pain. Chronic pain is a major medical condition distinctly different from and more complex than acute pain. Whereas acute pain is a normal sensation triggered in the nervous system to alert the body to possible injury, chronic pain is a state in which pain persists, for many months or years, beyond the normal course required by healing. The effects, both economic and personal, associated with chronic pain can be significant. They include loss of income; debt from costly medical treatment; impaired mobility; and anxiety and depression. ...


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PET Scan

Positron emission tomography, also known as a PET scan, is a diagnostic test that captures images of biological functions. The images provide information about cell biochemistry and metabolism that can help diagnose a variety of diseases and other conditions. PET imaging measures energy emitted from a radioactive substance that is ingested prior to the procedure. The injected material, detected through radioactive particles called positrons, interacts with body tissue to produce gamma radiation, which provides information about cell biochemistry and metabolism. ...


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Thrombophlebitis

Thrombophlebitis is a swelling of a vein caused by a clot. It usually occurs in the leg, though it may rarely occur in the arm or neck. When the affected vein is near the surface of the skin, the condition is called superficial thrombophlebitis. When it occurs deep within a muscle, it is known as deep vein thrombosis and is much more dangerous. Thrombophlebitis may develop as a result of prolonged inactivity, such as a lengthy period of bed rest or extended travel in a car or plane. The risk for thrombophlebitis is diminished by limiting periods spent sitting or standing in one place. ...


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Varicose Veins

Varicose veins, which appear as unsightly bulges, usually on the legs, may be a medical, as well as cosmetic, problem. Varicose veins affect both men and women. According to the The National Institutes of Health, a quarter of patients who suffer from this condition are men. More women seek help for this disorder than men not only because more women suffer from them, but because in our culture women expose their legs more frequently to public view. Regardless of gender, however, varicose veins can be a serious problem requiring medical intervention. ...


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Back Pain Prevention

At some point in their lives, the great majority of adults will suffer from significant low back pain, usually from an injury at work, at home or at play. Orthopedists, chiropractors, physical therapists, coaches and trainers all have helpful advice regarding back pain prevention. By following their directives, people can minimize the possibility of back injury, and keep themselves healthier in the process. ...


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Coronary Artery Disease

Coronary artery disease is a buildup of fatty deposits in the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart. This buildup of fat, cholesterol and calcium, known collectively as plaque, can cause a hardening and narrowing of the arteries that restricts blood from reaching the heart. Blood clots can also form and completely block the artery. Coronary artery disease develops gradually, and can eventually lead to a heart attack or heart failure. Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of death in the United States for both men and women. ...


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Sacroiliac-Joint Steroid Injections

Sacroiliac-joint steroid injections help to diagnose and relieve lower-back pain caused by problems with one or both of the sacroiliac joints, which connect the spine's base (sacrum) to the pelvis's ilium bones. If one or both of the sacroiliac joints is inflamed (sacroiliac-joint dysfunction), a patient can experience pain in the buttocks and lower back that worsens when running or standing. Sacroiliac-joint dysfunction can be caused by osteoarthritis, traumatic injury, pregnancy, inflammatory joint disease, or underlying structural abnormalities. ...


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Ultrasound

An ultrasound, also known as a sonogram, is a fast, painless imaging technique that produces images of the internal organs through the use of high-frequency sound waves. It is especially useful for examining the breasts, bladder, thyroid, abdominal organs and male and female reproductive organs, and for obtaining images of the fetus in the womb. ...


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Cardiovascular Disease FAQs

The heart is a muscle that pumps oxygenated blood from the arteries throughout the body. Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the buildup of fatty deposits in the coronary arteries, the arteries that supply blood to the heart. These fatty substances, such as cholesterol, fat or cells that collect along the lining of the coronary arteries are called plaque. Most of the plaque build-up, either in the heart or the blood vessels, develops over the course of time. Because the arteries supply oxygen-rich blood to the heart, any blockage left untreated can result in the risk of the patient experiencing a heart attack, stroke or even death. ...


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Varicose Veins FAQs

Varicose veins are enlarged veins near the surface of the skin which may be troubling both cosmetically and medically. They occur most frequently in the legs, but may exist elsewhere in the body. Following are some of the questions frequently asked by patients who suffer with varicose veins. ...


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Fluoroscopy FAQs

Fluoroscopy is an X-ray procedure that captures moving images in the body. It allows doctors to evaluate the functioning of almost all the body's systems, including the cardiovascular, urinary, digestive, respiratory, musculoskeletal and reproductive. In addition to being used as a diagnostic tool, fluoroscopy is often used therapeutically, and to assist in complicated surgical procedures. ...


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Venous Thrombectomy

Venous thrombectomy is the surgical removal of a clot within a large vein. This type of clot usually develops as a complication of deep vein thrombosis (DVT), a common but serious condition in which a clot develops in a vein deep within the body. DVT causes vein damage, resulting in impeded blood flow. Although DVT is often asymptomatic, if the clot detaches and travels to the lungs, pulmonary embolism, which is potentially fatal, can develop. Venous thrombectomy is generally viewed as a treatment of last resort, and is sometimes performed only when a patient already has a pulmonary embolism. ...


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Watch: What is a Pulmonary Embolism| PE | Dr. Arash Padidar 

Pulmonary Embolism | PE

Schedule Appointment | (408) 918-0405
 

A pulmonary embolism is a blockage of one or more arteries in the lungs. It is most often caused by a blood clot that travels to the lungs from another part of the body. Blood clots usually form in the veins of the legs or arms, but can dislodge and travel through the bloodstream to the lungs. Although a pulmonary embolism is not usually fatal, it is a complication of deep vein thrombosis, and can be life-threatening. ...


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Spider Veins FAQs

Spider veins, also known as telengiectasias, are a very common problem, aesthetically troubling to many people. Following are some frequently asked questions about spider veins.

What are spider veins?

Spider veins are veins in which the valves have stopped functioning properly. When the valves of a vein are working correctly, they keep blood flowing in one direction. When they become damaged, they allow blood to flow backwards and pool, causing the walls of the vein to distend and enlarge. This is called venous reflux. When smaller, more superficial veins are involved, a web of red or blue thin branches appear on the surface of the skin, usually on the legs or face. These are referred to as spider veins. ...


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Mammography FAQs

A mammogram is an X-ray examination of the breast performed to detect breast cancer in its earliest stages, often before any signs or symptoms of the disease are present. Mammograms are an effective way to detect cancer early with the goal of successfully treating and beating it.

Who is this procedure for?

A mammogram is a useful tool in detecting breast cancer because it can show abnormalities, like a tumor, in the breast tissue long before they can be felt. Screening and diagnostic mammography can aid in the detection and diagnosis of breast diseases, lumps, cysts and benign and malignant tumors. They can also detect calcium deposits that may indicate breast cancer. ...


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Cardiovascular Disease

The cardiovascular system consists of the heart, blood vessels, and the blood that is circulated throughout these vessels. The cardiovascular system is powered by the heart and it is responsible for transporting oxygen, nutrients, and hormones throughout the body. When there is a breakdown or deficiency in the circulatory system, it is often referred to as cardiovascular disease. Cardiovascular disease includes many different conditions that affect the cardiovascular system. Plaque may build up, narrowing the coronary arteries, and decrease blood flow to the heart. Blood clots may form within blood vessels and block blood flow to the heart or brain. In some cases, cardiovascular disease cannot be prevented. However, it can often be initially treated with healthy life style modifications. ...


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Nutrition

Proper diet is essential to maintaining good health. Keeping the body well-nourished and at a healthy weight has been proven to improve mood, quality of life and longevity. It may also go a long way in preventing or controlling many serious illnesses. Obesity, which has now reached epidemic proportions in the United States, and an enemy of good health, can be kept at bay through proper nutrition along with a program of healthy exercise. ...


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Exercise

Regular exercise has many benefits that may help individuals live longer, healthier lives. Individuals who engage in regular moderately intense physical activity may reduce their risks of developing heart disease and other serious illnesses.

Benefits of an Exercise Routine

Regular physical activity can improve health and lengthen life expectancy by helping a patient to achieve and maintain an appropriate weight, become energetic and fit, strengthen the immune system, and preserve emotional balance. ...


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May-Thurner Syndrome

May-Thurner syndrome is the result of the compression of the left iliac vein.The right iliac artery, which normally lays over the iliac vein, is the cause of this condition. In this syndrome, the right iliac artery constricts the iliac vein which narrows as a result of the constriction and sometimes scars. An individual with May-Thurner syndrome is at increased risk for developing deep vein thrombosis, or DVT, a potentially serious blood clot that can completely obstruct the circulation of blood in that vein. Such an individual may also develop venous insufficiency as a result of the deep vein thrombosis, known as post-thrombotic syndrome. ...


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Watch: Peripheral Artery Disease Screening | Dr. Arash Padidar 

Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) | Screening

Schedule Appointment | (408) 918-0405
 

Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is often caused by atherosclerosis, an accumulation of plaque in the peripheral arteries, which carry blood to the arms, legs and internal organs. Atherosclerosis causes the peripheral arteries to narrow and harden, and/or become blocked. By reducing the amount of blood that flows to the limbs and organs, atherosclerosis increases the risk of heart attack, stroke and transient ischemic attack. It can also cause limbs to become infected and, in severe cases, gangrenous. ...


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Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm

An aneurysm is a bulge in an artery, caused by a weakening of the blood vessel wall. A thoracic aortic aneurysm forms in the chest, within the body's largest artery, known as the aorta, typically caused by atherosclerosis, or hardening of the arteries. Atherosclerosis is a condition in which a gradual buildup of fats and cholesterol along the artery walls hardens into a substance called plaque. As the amount of plaque increases, it slowly narrows the diameter of the artery, often causing an aneurysm, and contributing to other cardiovascular disorders. ...


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Thoracic Oncology Surgery

Thoracic surgical oncology is a division of general thoracic surgery that provides state-of-the-art care and palliative treatment for patients with cancer of the following:

  • Lung
  • Esophagus
  • Chest

A multidisciplinary approach is taken in providing treatment to patients. Advances in technology have made diagnosis more accurate; therefore, tailoring treatment or a combination of treatments for patients is an increasingly common practice. Therapies may include: ...


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Ultrasound-Guided Biopsy

Ultrasound is an excellent way to evaluate breast abnormalities detected by mammography, but in some cases it is not possible to tell from the imaging studies alone whether a growth is benign or cancerous. Ultrasound-guided breast biopsy is a highly accurate way to evaluate suspicious masses within the breast that are visible on ultrasound, whether or not they can be felt on breast self-examination or clinical examination. ...


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Transient Ischemic Attack

A transient ischemic attack (TIA) occurs when the blood flow to the brain stops for a brief period of time. A TIA is a stroke-like event caused by improper blood flow in the carotid artery. The carotid artery is located in the neck and it carries blood from the heart to the brain. When blood flow is disrupted or blocked within these arteries, stroke-like symptoms may occur. Symptoms of a TIA are similar to those of a stroke, but they do not last as long, as the blockage within the artery may break-up or dissolve. In some individuals, a transient ischemic attack may be a warning sign that a stroke may occur in the future. ...


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Venography

A venography, also known as a venogram, is an X-ray test that uses a a contrast dye that is injected into the body, to show how blood flows through the veins. The dye allows the veins to be viewed more clearly on the X-ray images. A venogram may be used view the veins and blood flow in certain areas of the body to: ...


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Breast Biopsy

A biopsy is a minimally invasive procedure that removes a sample of abnormal tissue to determine whether it is benign or malignant. A biopsy can be performed on many different areas of the body, but is commonly used to diagnose, and sometimes treat, lumps found in breast tissue.

A breast biopsy may be performed after abnormalities have been detected in the breast as a result of a breast self-exam, mammogram or other imaging procedure. In addition to its diagnostic purpose, a biopsy can remove small tumors or other abnormalities that are found during the procedure, eliminating the need for additional surgery. ...


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Vascular Pain

Vascular pain is a serious medical condition affecting millions of people in the United States each year. Such pain may be chronic, acute or sub-acute and may range in severity from mild to debilitating. The cause of the pain is not always clear, although it may often result from vascular abnormalities in which blood vessels do not function properly and blood flow is impeded. When this happens, tissues, organs or nerves in the area may be adversely affected. When vascular pain occurs in the legs, it is called claudication. ...


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Claudication

Claudication is pain in the legs caused by too little blood flow. It is generally associated with conditions such as peripheral artery disease or arteriosclerosis. While it primarily occurs in the legs, claudication may also affect the arms. If left untreated, claudication may have serious medical consequences. ...


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Perforator Vein Ablation

The veins that connect the deep and superficial veins are called perforator veins. Like other veins in the body, they may weaken and become damaged. If their valves malfunction and allow a back flow of blood, called venous reflux, varicose veins may develop. Varicose veins appear as twisted ropes under the surface of the skin. They usually occur in the legs due to the fact that there they are working against gravity. While patients with varicose veins may be asymptomatic, at least initially, varicose veins may cause troubling symptoms, such as pain, swelling, itching or bleeding. Whether they cause medical symptoms of not, for many patients varicose veins may present daunting cosmetic issues. Patients with varicose veins should be thoroughly checked since the damaged veins may be an indication of circulatory problems elsewhere in the body. ...


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Reticular Veins

Reticular veins are damaged veins that are larger than spider veins but smaller than varicose veins. While they may appear blue or greenish and somewhat enlarged beneath the surface of the skin, they are not ropy and bulging like varicose veins. Reticular veins can appear occasionally on the face, but are most frequently found on the outer thighs or on the backs of the thighs and knees. Usually only of cosmetic concern, reticular veins may also cause patients to experience tenderness, pain, burning or itching in the affected area. ...


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Peripheral Artery Disease

Peripheral artery disease, also known as PAD, is a common vascular condition involving a buildup of plaque within the peripheral arteries of the limbs, usually the legs and feet. Plaque is an accumulation of fat, cholesterol, calcium and other substances in the blood. The buildup of plaque can severely narrow or block the arteries and limit the flow of oxygen-rich blood to the body. PAD may be a symptom of atherosclerosis, a specific form of arteriosclerosis, which leads to a more widespread occurrence of plaque buildup in arteries. ...


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Laser Atherectomy for Peripheral Artery Disease

Laser atherectomy is a new and efficient method of removing plaque from blood vessels clogged by peripheral artery disease. Peripheral artery disease or PAD, also known as peripheral vascular disease or PVD, is caused by atherosclerosis, a condition in which the arteries become clogged with plaque and blood flow is impeded. PAD most frequently occurs in the legs, but can occur elsewhere in the body. Arterial plaque, made up of cholesterol and other substances, usually forms in arteries already narrowed and hardened by the process of arteriosclerosis, a normal part of aging. ...


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Peripheral Stenting

Stenting is a common treatment method used to expend arteries within the lower extremities affected by peripheral artery disease (PAD). This condition involves blockage, hardening or narrowing of blood vessels throughout the body as a result of a buildup of plaque. This reduced or blocked blood supply can significantly increase a person's risk of having a heart attack or stroke. ...


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Nuclear Testing

Nuclear medicine uses images of internal organs and body functions to diagnose and treat various diseases and conditions. These images are produced by injecting or ingesting a radioactive substance prior to an imaging exam and are created by the energy emitted by the radioactive substances. Scans may be performed in conjunction with other types of imaging tests such as CT scans, MRI scans, or X-rays. ...


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Nuclear Medicine

Nuclear medicine is a division of radiology that uses small amounts of radioactive material to evaluate, diagnose and treat disease conditions. Nuclear medicine examinations and imaging tests use radioactive substances to create uniquely detailed images that enable physicians to examine both the anatomy and function of various regions of the body. ...


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Intracranial Arterial Stenosis

Intracranial arterial stenosis is the a narrowing of an artery within the brain. This condition can significantly affect blood flow and lead to a stroke. Intracranial arterial stenosis is caused by a buildup of plaque in the wall of the blood vessels, which narrows the arteries and blood passageways, resulting in decreased blood flow to certain areas of the brain. Stroke may be a result of intracranial arterial stenosis because of plaque that may completely block an artery, or a piece of plaque that may break off and travel to clog an artery supplying blood flow to the brain or another vital organ. Intracranial arterial stenosis is more prevalent among African-Americans and people of Asian, or Hispanic heritage. ...


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Nuclear Cardiology

Nuclear cardiology uses nuclear-imaging tests and studies to diagnose and assess conditions related to the heart. Nuclear-imaging tests may be used to assess blood flow, evaluate the pumping function of the heart, view the arteries of the heart, or determine the cause of a heart attack. ...


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Venous Interventions

Venous interventions are minimally invasive treatment options for patients with blocked or narrowed veins. These treatments are designed to either open up or seal off the diseased veins in order to prevent serious complications or permanent damage, while avoiding the need for surgery. ...


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Venous Insufficiency

Venous insufficiency is a chronic condition that involves a backwards flow of blood though the veins in the leg as a result of damaged valves. This back flow is called venous reflux. When blood cannot flow efficiently back to the heart, it begins to pool in the leg. Left untreated, venous insufficiency can lead to progressive vascular disease, causing pain, swelling, skin changes and eventual tissue breakdown. Chronic venous insufficiency is a long-term condition. It occurs because a vein is partly blocked, or blood is leaking around the valves. ...


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Liver Biopsy

A liver biopsy is a diagnostic procedure used to examine liver tissue and determine the cause of any abnormalities. This procedure is often performed after another test, such as a blood test or imaging test, indicates a problem with the liver. A liver biopsy can diagnose many problems, including cirrhosis, hepatitis B or C, and liver cancer. Results from a liver biopsy are available within a few days to several weeks. ...


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Testicular Biopsy

A testicular biopsy is a surgical procedure during which a small amount of tissue is removed from the testicles for microscopic examination. This procedure may be performed for a number of reasons: to help determine the cause of male infertility, to remove sperm to be used for assistive reproductive technology (ART), or to determine whether a testicular lump is malignant or benign. When a testicular biopsy is performed to assist in fertility, tissue containing sperm removed during the biopsy may be used for in vitro fertilization (IVF) or for sperm donation. When there is a question of malignancy, the surgeon's goal is to detect whether any cancerous tissue is present. ...


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Catheter Angiography

Catheter angiography is a minimally invasive diagnostic procedure to evaluate and treat conditions within the blood vessels. It is performed by inserting a catheter into a targeted artery or vein and delivering contrast dye to provide clear imaging results with the use of a fluoroscope. Angiogram pictures can be viewed as X-ray films or stored as digital images in a computer. ...


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Peripheral Artery Disease - FAQ's

What is peripheral artery disease?

Peripheral artery disease (PAD), also known as peripheral vascular disease (PVD), occurs when peripheral blood vessels are blocked, hardened and narrowed with plaque in a condition called atherosclerosis. This condition reduces the amount of blood that flows to your head, organs and limbs and increases the risk of a heart attack, stroke, and transient ischemic attack. Due to the restricted blood flow, peripheral artery disease increases your risk of infection in your limbs. In severe cases of peripheral artery disease, gangrene can occur. ...


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Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

An aneurysm is a localized, balloon-like expansion in a blood vessel caused by weak vessel walls. The aorta is the artery that carries oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the legs. When a bulge occurs in the abdominal section of the aorta, between the diaphragm and the legs, it is called an "abdominal aortic aneurysm." Most aortic aneurysms occur in the abdomen, and most abdominal aortic aneurysms occur beneath the kidneys, and may continue into the iliac (leg) arteries. ...


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Coronary Thrombectomy

A coronary thrombectomy is a procedure that is performed to remove a blood clot from the coronary arteries. The blockage of blood flow within an artery caused by a blood clot, is referred to as thrombosis. Coronary thrombosis is a term used to describe the blockage of a coronary artery as a result of a blood clot within that artery. Coronary thrombosis occurs when the opening of the artery becomes so small that the blood flow slows significantly, allowing the blood to clot in the artery. Left untreated, thrombosis of a coronary artery can lead to a heart attack. ...


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Vascular Access for Dialysis

Dialysis, short for "hemodialysis," is a blood-cleansing procedure used as treatment for chronic kidney failure. The chief function of the kidneys is to filter waste products from the blood. When the kidneys fail, dialysis takes over their function. During dialysis, blood is removed from a vein in the patient's arm (the leg is also used, albeit much less frequently), circulated through a filtering machine, and returned to the body through an artery. Before dialysis begins, a point of vascular access (the site where blood is removed and returned) must be created. ...


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Acute Renal Failure

Acute renal failure (ARF) occurs when the kidneys suddenly stop filtering waste products from the blood. This sudden loss of function can result from injury, trauma or infection, or from complications during surgery. It usually affects people who have additional health-related conditions. ...


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Fluoroscopy

Fluoroscopy is an X-ray imaging technique that produces a video of internal body structures in motion. During a fluoroscopy, X-ray beams are passed through the region of the body that is being examined, producing video images that are transmitted to a monitor. In this way, the targeted area can be viewed in detail. Fluoroscopy is an effective tool to evaluate the function of almost all the body's systems, including the digestive, urinary, cardiovascular, respiratory, musculoskeletal and reproductive. Fluoroscopy can be used on its own as a diagnostic tool, or in combination with other diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. ...


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Digital Fluoroscopy

Digital fluoroscopy is a special kind of X-ray that produces video imaging of the internal organs in motion. Is may be used to observe the functioning of a particular organ or an entire body system for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Before a patient undergoes a fluoroscopic examination, a contrast material is administered either orally, intravenously or by enema, in order to highlight the area of the body being X-rayed. ...


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Heart Attack

A heart attack occurs when the coronary arteries, the blood vessels that deliver blood to the heart, are suddenly blocked and cannot supply the heart with blood and oxygen. This blockage causes damage and gradual death of the heart muscle and often requires immediate treatment in order to save the person's life. Also known as a myocardial infarction, heart attacks most often occur as a result of coronary artery disease, a condition in which plaque builds up inside the arteries. Heart attacks are the leading cause of death for men and women in the United States. ...


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Heart Attack FAQs

A heart attack, also known as a myocardial infarction, occurs when a coronary artery, a blood vessel that delivers blood to the heart, is suddenly blocked and cannot supply the heart with blood and oxygen. This causes damage and gradual death of the heart muscle and requires immediate treatment in order to save the patient's life. Heart attacks are the leading cause of death in the United States. ...


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Image-guided Surgery

Image-guided surgery (IGS) uses computer-generated images before, during and after a surgical procedure in order to identify and clarify the particular features of a surgical site. During image-guided surgery, the surgeon tracks the path of surgical instruments in order to perform the procedure indirectly. Image-guided surgery is a type of computer-assisted surgery. It has the advantage of being minimally invasive, and of allowing the surgeon to have an enhanced view of the anatomical structures of the surgical site. ...


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Laparoscopy

Laparoscopy is a minimally invasive surgical procedure used to diagnose and treat conditions in the abdominal and pelvic areas. During a laparoscopic procedure, a thin tube with a camera on the end, known as a laparoscope, is inserted through a tiny incision to allow the doctor to closely examine the organs of the area. Surgical instruments can be inserted through additional incisions to treat any identified problems or to retrieve tissue specimens. ...


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Nerve Pain

Nerve pain often results from nerve entrapment syndrome, the damage caused when a nerve is pinched or compressed. Patients with this condition may experience mild or severe pain that is temporary or chronic. The nerves of the body extend from the brain and spinal cord, threading through to every region of the body. The compression of the nerve can take place in the spine, causing pain to radiate into the limbs, or can take place in other parts of the body. It may occur do to a traumatic injury, repeated stress, or an underlying disease condition. ...


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Plantar Fasciitis

Plantar fasciitis is an inflammation of the plantar fascia, a band of fibrous connective tissue that runs along the bottom of the foot from the heel to the base of the toes. This band normally supports the muscles and the arch of the foot, functioning as a shock absorber, but if, after repeated stretching, it tears, inflammation and severe heel pain, exacerbated by standing or walking, result. Plantar fasciitis is the most frequent cause of heel pain and a common reason for the development of outgrowths of bone, called heel spurs, as well. It is more common in women and tends to occur as people age. ...


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Renovascular Disease

Renovascular disease is the blockage or narrowing within the renal arteries or veins, the blood vessels that carry blood to and from the kidneys. The arteries are affected much more commonly than the veins. Renovascular disease can cause kidney damage or kidney failure. This condition occurs most often in older patients, although young women may also be at risk for a certain type of renovascular disease called fibromuscular dysplasia. ...


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Renal Artery Stenosis

Renal artery stenosis (RAS) is the narrowing of one or both of the renal arteries, the blood vessels that carry blood to the kidneys from the aorta. RAS often causes high blood pressure and reduced kidney function, but many times it has no symptoms until it becomes severe. Most cases of RAS are caused by a condition called "atherosclerosis," the clogging, narrowing and hardening of the renal arteries. RAS develops when plaque builds up on the inner wall of the renal arteries, causing them to harden and narrow. RAS can also be caused by fibromuscular dysplasia, an abnormal growth of tissue within the wall of the artery, which also causes the blood vessels to narrow. ...


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Renal Artery Aneurysm

A renal artery aneurysm is a bulge or "balloon" that forms in the wall of an artery that travels to a kidney. In most cases, there are no symptoms associated with renal artery aneurysms, and they are often discovered accidentally during examinations for other medical conditions. Renal artery aneurysms may be caused by congenital weakness in the walls of the arteries; certain diseases; infection; or trauma that has damaged the vascular walls. Most renal artery aneurysms are small, and do not require medical treatment. However, larger aneurysms that are in danger of rupturing may require surgery. ...


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Spider Veins

Spider veins (telangiectasias) are small, thin blood vessels visible beneath the skin. They usually develop on the face or legs, and may look like a series of thin tree branches or strands of a spider web. Although most spider veins are only a cosmetic issue, for some people they can cause uncomfortable symptoms such as aching, burning, swelling and leg-cramping. ...


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Ultrasound-Guided Biopsy

An ultrasound-guided biopsy is a procedure in which ultrasound imaging is used to aid a physician in obtaining a sample of suspicious tissue. The procedure, which is also called a sonotome biopsy, is a less invasive, faster alternative to surgical biopsy that leaves little scarring. ...


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Endovenous Laser Ablation

Endovenous laser ablation, also known as EVLA, is a minimally invasive alternative to the traditional ligation and stripping treatment of varicose veins. Varicose veins are a common medical condition involving diseased veins, usually in the leg. As blood pools in the legs, the walls of the veins distend, until the veins appear raised and twisted under the skin. For some individuals, varicose veins present only a cosmetic problem. If the condition worsens, however, varicose veins can become painful and even dangerous and medical intervention may become necessary. ...


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Endovenous Laser Therapy

Endovenous laser therapy, known as EVLT, is a minimally invasive procedure used to treat unsightly varicose veins. It is fast, safe, and effective, providing and provides cosmetic benefits which improve the patient's quality of life. EVLT is a simple, outpatient procedure which takes place in the doctor's office and takes less than an hour. It provides immediate relief from symptoms without scarring or lengthy recovery. It has a success rate of 98 percent and has been FDA approved. ...


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Endovenous Radiofrequency Ablation

Endovenous radiofrequency ablation is a minimally invasive alternative to vein stripping for the treatment of varicose veins. Varicose veins are veins in which the valves are damaged to the point that there is a backflow of blood, called venous reflux. Venous reflux interferes with efficient circulation and causes blood to pool in the affected veins and cause distention. ...


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Foam Sclerotherapy

Foam sclerotherapy is a medical procedure used to treat varicose veins. Varicose veins result from weakened valves which keep the veins from functioning properly and allow blood to pool in the legs. Varicose veins may be not only unattractive but medically problematic. During foam sclerotherapy, a sclerosant solution is injected into the affected veins, causing their eventual collapse. These damaged veins will be absorbed by the body and blood flow will naturally be rerouted through other, healthy veins. ...


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Pelvic Varicose Veins

Varicose veins are swollen blood vessels which do not function efficiently. While they most frequently appear on the legs, they may also develop in the pelvic region, in the lower abdomen or around the genitals, thighs or buttocks. Patients with pelvic varicose veins, or pelvic congestion syndrome, may be asymptomatic. They may also experience troubling symptoms, primarily pain in the region. Women suffer more frequently with pelvic varicose veins, but men are also susceptible to the problem. Pelvic varicose veins may be invisible, particularly when the patient is lying down. ...


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Sclerotherapy

Sclerotherapy is a minimally invasive medical procedure used to treat varicose and spider veins, most commonly found on the legs, by collapsing them through the use of a solvent. Sclerotherapy has been used on patients since the 1930s with great success, producing increasingly effective medical, as well as cosmetic, results. ...


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Women and Heart Disease

Heart (cardiovascular) disease is the leading cause of death in women older than 40. The death rate from heart disease increases as women age, especially after they reach menopause. It has claimed the lives of more women than men since 1984, and is responsible for the deaths of more women than breast and lung cancers combined. Each year, one of every four women in the United States will die from heart disease, with African-American women having a higher death rate than Caucasian women. ...


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Biliary Drainage

Biliary drainage, also called percutaneous biliary drainage, is a common treatment for clearing gallstones and other blockages from the bile ducts. The bile ducts carry bile from the liver to the gallbladder and small intestine to aid in digestion. ...


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Brain Aneurysm Embolization

A brain aneurysm embolization, also known as endovascular coiling, is a minimally invasive treatment for a brain aneurysm. It can be used to treat aneurysms that have ruptured and those that are intact. During the procedure, a catheter is inserted into the artery and a coil is threaded through the catheter and placed within the aneurysm, cutting off the flow of blood to the aneurysm. The lack of blood flow prevents the aneurysm from rupturing or leaking. Brain aneurysm embolization is an alternative treatment method available to patients that do not qualify for surgery. ...


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Carotid Angioplasty with Stent Placement

Carotid angioplasty and stent placement is a minimally invasive procedure performed to open blocked arteries and improve blood flow. During the procedure, the surgeon will permanently place a stent to keep the artery open, preventing or treating a stroke. The carotid arteries are located on each side of the neck and are the arteries responsible for blood flow to the brain. ...


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Computed Tomography Scan

Computed tomography (CT) scan is a sophisticated X-ray imaging system that scans thin "slices" of the body on all sides, then combines those slices into a highly detailed, three-dimensional digital image of hard and soft tissues in the body. The procedure is non-invasive, requires minimal radiation exposure, and can simultaneously depict tissues of different densities, which is not possible with traditional X-ray methods. ...


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Watch: Deep Venous Thrombosis | DVT | Dr. Arash Padidar 

Deep Vein Thrombosis | DVT

Schedule Appointment | (408) 918-0405
 

Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) occurs when a blood clot, also known as a thrombus, forms in a vein deep within the body. Such clots most frequently form in the legs, but may occur in other parts of the body. Blood clots can be caused by anything that prevents the blood from circulating normally or clotting properly. Deep vein thrombosis may be caused by extended periods of inactivity; in some cases it may be the result of staying in bed during a long hospital stay or sitting for a long-period of time on an airplane flight. An injury to a vein or certain medical conditions may also cause a blood clot to form. DVT is a serious condition that requires medical treatment, as a blood clot may travel to the blood vessels of the lungs, heart or brain, causing serious complications which can be fatal. ...


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Dialysis FAQs

What is dialysis?

Dialysis is a process that substitutes for kidney function when the normal operation of the kidneys is interrupted. In a healthy body, the kidneys serve to regulate fluid levels in the body, filter waste products and control urination. Dialysis performs these functions when the kidneys fail due to disease or injury and the resultant buildup of waste products in the body threatens to cause illness. ...


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Pelvic Pain Syndrome

Pelvic pain syndrome is a chronic condition that involves persistent pain in the lower-abdominal and pelvic regions. Pelvic pain syndrome may be diagnosed when pelvic pain is chronic, and has been present for more than 6 months. It can affect women both physically and emotionally, leading to sleep disturbances, anxiety, depression and sexual dysfunction. Pelvic pain can be a symptom of an underlying condition, or its cause may remain unknown. Living with pelvic pain syndrome is often difficult, and many women spend years trying to determine its cause. ...


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Varicocele

A varicocele is an enlargement of the veins within the scrotum. Varicoceles are similar to varicose veins in the legs and form for similar reasons. The valves inside the veins become weak and ineffective, enabling a backflow of blood. Varicoceles are common, occurring in about 15 to 20 percent of all males. Almost all varicoceles affect the left testicle. Many varicoceles cause no symptoms, but they may result in discomfort and are a major, though reparable, cause of infertility. When and if varicoceles become troublesome, they can be corrected surgically. ...


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Carotid Artery Ultrasound

A carotid artery ultrasound is a diagnostic procedure that uses high-frequency sound waves to generate images of the neck's internal carotid arteries, which supply oxygen-rich blood to the brain. A carotid artery ultrasound is used to evaluate a patient's risk of stroke or other cardiovascular complications by checking for artery-narrowing plaque buildup. ...


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Brain Arteriovenous Malformation

A brain arteriovenous malformation, also known as a brain AVM, is a congenital condition that involves an abnormal connection between arteries and veins within the brain, causing them to appear tangled and dilated, putting patients at risk for hemorrhaging and other serious complications. AVMs may prevent oxygenated blood from completely circulating throughout the brain, causing symptoms such as headaches and vision problems. AVMs are present at birth and may occur nearly anywhere in the body, but are most common within the brain or spine. The exact cause of this condition is unknown, but it is believed to develop in utero, during fetal development. Brain arteriovenous malformations are more common in males than females and some evidence suggests they may run in families. ...


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Uterine Artery Embolization

Uterine artery embolization, also known as fibroid embolization, is a minimally invasive procedure that blocks blood flow to uterine fibroids, shrinking or destroying the non-cancerous tumors that grow on the uterine walls.

While fibroids do not always cause symptoms, they may lead to future complications and usually require treatment. Traditional treatment can be done with surgery - either a myomectomy to remove the fibroids, or a hysterectomy to remove the entire uterus. Fibroid embolization is a less invasive procedure that is performed under sedation through a blood vessel in the upper thigh. A catheter is first inserted into the blood vessel. A contrast material is then injected into the catheter providing the physician with a visual field of the blood supply to the fibroid. Particles that cut off the blood flow to the fibroid are injected through the catheter which close off the blood supply to the fibroid. ...


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Epidural Steroid Injections

By reducing inflammation, epidural steroid injections (ESIs) are used to temporarily relieve lumbar (lower back), cervical (neck), thoracic (mid-spine) and sciatic-nerve pain. ESIs contain cortisone and an anesthetic, and are delivered directly to the epidural space, which is the area between the spinal cord and the outer membrane that covers the brain and spinal cord (the dura). As a result, they provide more effective and faster pain relief than oral medications. ...


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Gastrostomy

Gastrostomy is a procedure during which a plastic feeding tube is inserted directly into the intestinal tract to provide nourishment when normal nutrition is difficult or impossible. Gastrostomy may conducted during an endoscopy, when the surgeon has inserted a tube through the nose down into the stomach, or through an incision in the skin that penetrates the abdominal wall. Patients using a feeding tube are said to be undergoing gavage or enteral feeding. ...


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Hemodialysis

Hemodialysis ("dialysis," for short) is a blood-cleansing procedure used as treatment for chronic kidney failure. The chief function of the kidneys is to filter waste products from the blood. When the kidneys fail, hemodialysis takes over their function. During hemodialysis, blood is removed from a vein in the patient's arm (the leg is also used, albeit much less frequently), circulated through a filtering machine, and returned to the body through an artery. ...


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Hypercoagulation Disorders

Hypercoagulation disorders, also known as thrombophilia or thrombotic disorders, are abnormalities in which a patient's blood clots too easily, resulting in several possible disease conditions. Coagulation is a vital process. Fortunately, for most people it is also an automatic, dependable one. In some cases, however, hypercoagulation (excessive clotting) occurs and may become life-threatening. ...


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MRI

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive, radiation-free scanning technology that is used to view detailed images of the tissues and organs within the body. During an MRI test, radio waves and magnetic fields are used to produce clear and detailed three-dimensional images of organs, as well as the hard and soft tissues throughout the body. ...


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X-Ray 

X-rays are a form of electromagnetic radiation, similar to visible light. Unlike light, however, x-rays have higher energy and can pass through most objects, including the body. Medical x-rays are used to generate images of tissues and structures inside the body.

X-Ray Purpose

When X-rays are used ...


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Inferior Vena Cava Filter

An inferior vena cava (IVC) filter , is a vascular filter that is inserted through a small incision into the main vein in the abdomen. This vein in the abdomen is called the inferior vena cava. The filter prevents blood clots from breaking loose in leg veins and lodging in the lung. The IVC filter is typically implanted permanently in those patients with a high risk of pulmonary embolism. ...


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Facet-Joint Injections

Facet-joint injections are both a minimally invasive treatment for back pain caused by inflamed facet joints, and a diagnostic tool for determining whether facet-joint inflammation is a source of pain. Four facet joints connect each vertebra to the vertebra above and below it. A facet-joint injection, administered into either the joint capsule or its surrounding tissue, combines a long-lasting steroid and a local anesthetic. ...


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Intracranial Aneurysm

An intracranial aneurysm, also known as a cerebral aneurysm, is a blood vessel within the brain that bulges or expands like a balloon and fills with blood. Caused by a weakness in wall of an artery, an intracranial aneurysm may lead to pressure on surrounding nerves and tissue, and an increased risk of rupture or hemorrhage. While this condition can occur anywhere within the brain, intracranial aneurysms most commonly affect the arteries from the underside of the brain to the base of the skull. Intracranial aneurysms can affect individuals of all ages, but are more common in adults than children, and seem to affect women more than men. ...


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Nephrostomy

A nephrostomy, also known as percutaneous nephrostomy, is performed to drain urine from the kidney. This procedure is necessary when urine cannot move through the ureters, bladder, and urethra as it normally does. A nephrostomy is performed by the surgical insertion of a tube directly into the kidney. The function of the nephrostomy is to temporarily drain urine either because its flow has been blocked or because normal urine flow has to be temporarily interrupted for medical reasons. The procedure allows the kidney to function properly and protects it from further damage. It also helps to clear any infection. ...


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Peritoneal Dialysis

Dialysis is a treatment to filter the blood and remove waste products when the kidneys are no longer functioning properly. During hemodialysis, the patient's blood circulates through a machine to be cleansed before re-entering the body. This procedure takes place in a medical setting under the supervision of a healthcare professional. ...


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Stroke

A stroke occurs when there is a reduction in the flow of blood to the brain. The lack of blood supply may be the result of a blockage in an artery or a burst blood vessel in the brain. A stroke deprives brain tissue of oxygen and nutrients, causing brain cells to die. A stroke is a medical emergency and requires immediate attention by a medical professional. Prompt treatment can minimize damage to the brain and prevent further complications. ...


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Uterine Fibroids

Uterine fibroids (myomas) are tumors that grow in the uterine walls. They are usually benign, and vary in size and quantity. The exact cause of uterine fibroids is unknown, but their formation may be affected by genetics, with a woman being more likely to develop them if she has a family member similarly afflicted. Most fibroids do not cause any symptoms and do not require any treatment, although, in some cases, they lead to pregnancy complications. Uterine fibroids are most common in women older than 30, and during the reproductive years. ...


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Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm FAQ's

What is an abdominal aortic aneurysm?

An aneurysm is a localized, balloon-like expansion in a blood vessel, caused by weak vessel walls. The abdominal aorta refers to the part of the aorta, the artery that carries oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the legs, between the diaphragm and the legs. That is why the bulge that occurs in the abdominal aorta is called an abdominal aortic aneurysm. ...


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Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy

A percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, also known as a PEG or gastrostomy tube insertion, is a surgical procedure to insert a feeding tube through the abdomen and into the stomach. A gastrostomy can be either a temporary or long-term treatment, depending on the condition of the patient. ...


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Head and Neck Computed Tomography Scan

A head and neck computed tomography (CT) scan is a noninvasive diagnostic procedure that uses multiple X-rays to create cross-sectional views of the head and neck areas. A CT scan of the head and neck enables a radiologist to see images of the neck, skull, brain, sinuses and eye sockets. A CT scan is painless, and its images are clearer and more detailed than those of a traditional X-ray. ...


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Pain Management

An estimated 70 million Americans suffer from chronic pain. Chronic pain is a major medical condition distinctly different from and more complex than acute pain. Whereas acute pain is a normal sensation triggered in the nervous system to alert the body to possible injury, chronic pain is a state in which pain persists, for many months or years, beyond the normal course required by healing. The effects, both economic and personal, associated with chronic pain can be significant. They include loss of income; debt from costly medical treatment; impaired mobility; and anxiety and depression. ...


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PET Scan

Positron emission tomography, also known as a PET scan, is a diagnostic test that captures images of biological functions. The images provide information about cell biochemistry and metabolism that can help diagnose a variety of diseases and other conditions. PET imaging measures energy emitted from a radioactive substance that is ingested prior to the procedure. The injected material, detected through radioactive particles called positrons, interacts with body tissue to produce gamma radiation, which provides information about cell biochemistry and metabolism. ...


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Thrombophlebitis

Thrombophlebitis is a swelling of a vein caused by a clot. It usually occurs in the leg, though it may rarely occur in the arm or neck. When the affected vein is near the surface of the skin, the condition is called superficial thrombophlebitis. When it occurs deep within a muscle, it is known as deep vein thrombosis and is much more dangerous. Thrombophlebitis may develop as a result of prolonged inactivity, such as a lengthy period of bed rest or extended travel in a car or plane. The risk for thrombophlebitis is diminished by limiting periods spent sitting or standing in one place. ...


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Varicose Veins

Varicose veins, which appear as unsightly bulges, usually on the legs, may be a medical, as well as cosmetic, problem. Varicose veins affect both men and women. According to the The National Institutes of Health, a quarter of patients who suffer from this condition are men. More women seek help for this disorder than men not only because more women suffer from them, but because in our culture women expose their legs more frequently to public view. Regardless of gender, however, varicose veins can be a serious problem requiring medical intervention. ...


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Back Pain Prevention

At some point in their lives, the great majority of adults will suffer from significant low back pain, usually from an injury at work, at home or at play. Orthopedists, chiropractors, physical therapists, coaches and trainers all have helpful advice regarding back pain prevention. By following their directives, people can minimize the possibility of back injury, and keep themselves healthier in the process. ...


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Coronary Artery Disease

Coronary artery disease is a buildup of fatty deposits in the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart. This buildup of fat, cholesterol and calcium, known collectively as plaque, can cause a hardening and narrowing of the arteries that restricts blood from reaching the heart. Blood clots can also form and completely block the artery. Coronary artery disease develops gradually, and can eventually lead to a heart attack or heart failure. Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of death in the United States for both men and women. ...


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Sacroiliac-Joint Steroid Injections

Sacroiliac-joint steroid injections help to diagnose and relieve lower-back pain caused by problems with one or both of the sacroiliac joints, which connect the spine's base (sacrum) to the pelvis's ilium bones. If one or both of the sacroiliac joints is inflamed (sacroiliac-joint dysfunction), a patient can experience pain in the buttocks and lower back that worsens when running or standing. Sacroiliac-joint dysfunction can be caused by osteoarthritis, traumatic injury, pregnancy, inflammatory joint disease, or underlying structural abnormalities. ...


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Ultrasound

An ultrasound, also known as a sonogram, is a fast, painless imaging technique that produces images of the internal organs through the use of high-frequency sound waves. It is especially useful for examining the breasts, bladder, thyroid, abdominal organs and male and female reproductive organs, and for obtaining images of the fetus in the womb. ...


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Cardiovascular Disease FAQs

The heart is a muscle that pumps oxygenated blood from the arteries throughout the body. Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the buildup of fatty deposits in the coronary arteries, the arteries that supply blood to the heart. These fatty substances, such as cholesterol, fat or cells that collect along the lining of the coronary arteries are called plaque. Most of the plaque build-up, either in the heart or the blood vessels, develops over the course of time. Because the arteries supply oxygen-rich blood to the heart, any blockage left untreated can result in the risk of the patient experiencing a heart attack, stroke or even death. ...


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Varicose Veins FAQs

Varicose veins are enlarged veins near the surface of the skin which may be troubling both cosmetically and medically. They occur most frequently in the legs, but may exist elsewhere in the body. Following are some of the questions frequently asked by patients who suffer with varicose veins. ...


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Fluoroscopy FAQs

Fluoroscopy is an X-ray procedure that captures moving images in the body. It allows doctors to evaluate the functioning of almost all the body's systems, including the cardiovascular, urinary, digestive, respiratory, musculoskeletal and reproductive. In addition to being used as a diagnostic tool, fluoroscopy is often used therapeutically, and to assist in complicated surgical procedures. ...


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Venous Thrombectomy

Venous thrombectomy is the surgical removal of a clot within a large vein. This type of clot usually develops as a complication of deep vein thrombosis (DVT), a common but serious condition in which a clot develops in a vein deep within the body. DVT causes vein damage, resulting in impeded blood flow. Although DVT is often asymptomatic, if the clot detaches and travels to the lungs, pulmonary embolism, which is potentially fatal, can develop. Venous thrombectomy is generally viewed as a treatment of last resort, and is sometimes performed only when a patient already has a pulmonary embolism. ...


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Watch: What is a Pulmonary Embolism| PE | Dr. Arash Padidar 

Pulmonary Embolism | PE

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A pulmonary embolism is a blockage of one or more arteries in the lungs. It is most often caused by a blood clot that travels to the lungs from another part of the body. Blood clots usually form in the veins of the legs or arms, but can dislodge and travel through the bloodstream to the lungs. Although a pulmonary embolism is not usually fatal, it is a complication of deep vein thrombosis, and can be life-threatening. ...


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Spider Veins FAQs

Spider veins, also known as telengiectasias, are a very common problem, aesthetically troubling to many people. Following are some frequently asked questions about spider veins.

What are spider veins?

Spider veins are veins in which the valves have stopped functioning properly. When the valves of a vein are working correctly, they keep blood flowing in one direction. When they become damaged, they allow blood to flow backwards and pool, causing the walls of the vein to distend and enlarge. This is called venous reflux. When smaller, more superficial veins are involved, a web of red or blue thin branches appear on the surface of the skin, usually on the legs or face. These are referred to as spider veins. ...


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Mammography FAQs

A mammogram is an X-ray examination of the breast performed to detect breast cancer in its earliest stages, often before any signs or symptoms of the disease are present. Mammograms are an effective way to detect cancer early with the goal of successfully treating and beating it.

Who is this procedure for?

A mammogram is a useful tool in detecting breast cancer because it can show abnormalities, like a tumor, in the breast tissue long before they can be felt. Screening and diagnostic mammography can aid in the detection and diagnosis of breast diseases, lumps, cysts and benign and malignant tumors. They can also detect calcium deposits that may indicate breast cancer. ...


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Cardiovascular Disease

The cardiovascular system consists of the heart, blood vessels, and the blood that is circulated throughout these vessels. The cardiovascular system is powered by the heart and it is responsible for transporting oxygen, nutrients, and hormones throughout the body. When there is a breakdown or deficiency in the circulatory system, it is often referred to as cardiovascular disease. Cardiovascular disease includes many different conditions that affect the cardiovascular system. Plaque may build up, narrowing the coronary arteries, and decrease blood flow to the heart. Blood clots may form within blood vessels and block blood flow to the heart or brain. In some cases, cardiovascular disease cannot be prevented. However, it can often be initially treated with healthy life style modifications. ...


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Nutrition

Proper diet is essential to maintaining good health. Keeping the body well-nourished and at a healthy weight has been proven to improve mood, quality of life and longevity. It may also go a long way in preventing or controlling many serious illnesses. Obesity, which has now reached epidemic proportions in the United States, and an enemy of good health, can be kept at bay through proper nutrition along with a program of healthy exercise. ...


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Exercise

Regular exercise has many benefits that may help individuals live longer, healthier lives. Individuals who engage in regular moderately intense physical activity may reduce their risks of developing heart disease and other serious illnesses.

Benefits of an Exercise Routine

Regular physical activity can improve health and lengthen life expectancy by helping a patient to achieve and maintain an appropriate weight, become energetic and fit, strengthen the immune system, and preserve emotional balance. ...


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May-Thurner Syndrome

May-Thurner syndrome is the result of the compression of the left iliac vein.The right iliac artery, which normally lays over the iliac vein, is the cause of this condition. In this syndrome, the right iliac artery constricts the iliac vein which narrows as a result of the constriction and sometimes scars. An individual with May-Thurner syndrome is at increased risk for developing deep vein thrombosis, or DVT, a potentially serious blood clot that can completely obstruct the circulation of blood in that vein. Such an individual may also develop venous insufficiency as a result of the deep vein thrombosis, known as post-thrombotic syndrome. ...


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Watch: Peripheral Artery Disease Screening | Dr. Arash Padidar 

Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) | Screening

Schedule Appointment | (408) 918-0405
 

Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is often caused by atherosclerosis, an accumulation of plaque in the peripheral arteries, which carry blood to the arms, legs and internal organs. Atherosclerosis causes the peripheral arteries to narrow and harden, and/or become blocked. By reducing the amount of blood that flows to the limbs and organs, atherosclerosis increases the risk of heart attack, stroke and transient ischemic attack. It can also cause limbs to become infected and, in severe cases, gangrenous. ...


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Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm

An aneurysm is a bulge in an artery, caused by a weakening of the blood vessel wall. A thoracic aortic aneurysm forms in the chest, within the body's largest artery, known as the aorta, typically caused by atherosclerosis, or hardening of the arteries. Atherosclerosis is a condition in which a gradual buildup of fats and cholesterol along the artery walls hardens into a substance called plaque. As the amount of plaque increases, it slowly narrows the diameter of the artery, often causing an aneurysm, and contributing to other cardiovascular disorders. ...


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Thoracic Oncology Surgery

Thoracic surgical oncology is a division of general thoracic surgery that provides state-of-the-art care and palliative treatment for patients with cancer of the following:

  • Lung
  • Esophagus
  • Chest

A multidisciplinary approach is taken in providing treatment to patients. Advances in technology have made diagnosis more accurate; therefore, tailoring treatment or a combination of treatments for patients is an increasingly common practice. Therapies may include: ...


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Ultrasound-Guided Biopsy

Ultrasound is an excellent way to evaluate breast abnormalities detected by mammography, but in some cases it is not possible to tell from the imaging studies alone whether a growth is benign or cancerous. Ultrasound-guided breast biopsy is a highly accurate way to evaluate suspicious masses within the breast that are visible on ultrasound, whether or not they can be felt on breast self-examination or clinical examination. ...


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Transient Ischemic Attack

A transient ischemic attack (TIA) occurs when the blood flow to the brain stops for a brief period of time. A TIA is a stroke-like event caused by improper blood flow in the carotid artery. The carotid artery is located in the neck and it carries blood from the heart to the brain. When blood flow is disrupted or blocked within these arteries, stroke-like symptoms may occur. Symptoms of a TIA are similar to those of a stroke, but they do not last as long, as the blockage within the artery may break-up or dissolve. In some individuals, a transient ischemic attack may be a warning sign that a stroke may occur in the future. ...


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Venography

A venography, also known as a venogram, is an X-ray test that uses a a contrast dye that is injected into the body, to show how blood flows through the veins. The dye allows the veins to be viewed more clearly on the X-ray images. A venogram may be used view the veins and blood flow in certain areas of the body to: ...


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Breast Biopsy

A biopsy is a minimally invasive procedure that removes a sample of abnormal tissue to determine whether it is benign or malignant. A biopsy can be performed on many different areas of the body, but is commonly used to diagnose, and sometimes treat, lumps found in breast tissue.

A breast biopsy may be performed after abnormalities have been detected in the breast as a result of a breast self-exam, mammogram or other imaging procedure. In addition to its diagnostic purpose, a biopsy can remove small tumors or other abnormalities that are found during the procedure, eliminating the need for additional surgery. ...


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Vascular Pain

Vascular pain is a serious medical condition affecting millions of people in the United States each year. Such pain may be chronic, acute or sub-acute and may range in severity from mild to debilitating. The cause of the pain is not always clear, although it may often result from vascular abnormalities in which blood vessels do not function properly and blood flow is impeded. When this happens, tissues, organs or nerves in the area may be adversely affected. When vascular pain occurs in the legs, it is called claudication. ...


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Claudication

Claudication is pain in the legs caused by too little blood flow. It is generally associated with conditions such as peripheral artery disease or arteriosclerosis. While it primarily occurs in the legs, claudication may also affect the arms. If left untreated, claudication may have serious medical consequences. ...


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Perforator Vein Ablation

The veins that connect the deep and superficial veins are called perforator veins. Like other veins in the body, they may weaken and become damaged. If their valves malfunction and allow a back flow of blood, called venous reflux, varicose veins may develop. Varicose veins appear as twisted ropes under the surface of the skin. They usually occur in the legs due to the fact that there they are working against gravity. While patients with varicose veins may be asymptomatic, at least initially, varicose veins may cause troubling symptoms, such as pain, swelling, itching or bleeding. Whether they cause medical symptoms of not, for many patients varicose veins may present daunting cosmetic issues. Patients with varicose veins should be thoroughly checked since the damaged veins may be an indication of circulatory problems elsewhere in the body. ...


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Reticular Veins

Reticular veins are damaged veins that are larger than spider veins but smaller than varicose veins. While they may appear blue or greenish and somewhat enlarged beneath the surface of the skin, they are not ropy and bulging like varicose veins. Reticular veins can appear occasionally on the face, but are most frequently found on the outer thighs or on the backs of the thighs and knees. Usually only of cosmetic concern, reticular veins may also cause patients to experience tenderness, pain, burning or itching in the affected area. ...


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Peripheral Artery Disease

Peripheral artery disease, also known as PAD, is a common vascular condition involving a buildup of plaque within the peripheral arteries of the limbs, usually the legs and feet. Plaque is an accumulation of fat, cholesterol, calcium and other substances in the blood. The buildup of plaque can severely narrow or block the arteries and limit the flow of oxygen-rich blood to the body. PAD may be a symptom of atherosclerosis, a specific form of arteriosclerosis, which leads to a more widespread occurrence of plaque buildup in arteries. ...


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Laser Atherectomy for Peripheral Artery Disease

Laser atherectomy is a new and efficient method of removing plaque from blood vessels clogged by peripheral artery disease. Peripheral artery disease or PAD, also known as peripheral vascular disease or PVD, is caused by atherosclerosis, a condition in which the arteries become clogged with plaque and blood flow is impeded. PAD most frequently occurs in the legs, but can occur elsewhere in the body. Arterial plaque, made up of cholesterol and other substances, usually forms in arteries already narrowed and hardened by the process of arteriosclerosis, a normal part of aging. ...


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Peripheral Stenting

Stenting is a common treatment method used to expend arteries within the lower extremities affected by peripheral artery disease (PAD). This condition involves blockage, hardening or narrowing of blood vessels throughout the body as a result of a buildup of plaque. This reduced or blocked blood supply can significantly increase a person's risk of having a heart attack or stroke. ...


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Nuclear Testing

Nuclear medicine uses images of internal organs and body functions to diagnose and treat various diseases and conditions. These images are produced by injecting or ingesting a radioactive substance prior to an imaging exam and are created by the energy emitted by the radioactive substances. Scans may be performed in conjunction with other types of imaging tests such as CT scans, MRI scans, or X-rays. ...


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Nuclear Medicine

Nuclear medicine is a division of radiology that uses small amounts of radioactive material to evaluate, diagnose and treat disease conditions. Nuclear medicine examinations and imaging tests use radioactive substances to create uniquely detailed images that enable physicians to examine both the anatomy and function of various regions of the body. ...


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Intracranial Arterial Stenosis

Intracranial arterial stenosis is the a narrowing of an artery within the brain. This condition can significantly affect blood flow and lead to a stroke. Intracranial arterial stenosis is caused by a buildup of plaque in the wall of the blood vessels, which narrows the arteries and blood passageways, resulting in decreased blood flow to certain areas of the brain. Stroke may be a result of intracranial arterial stenosis because of plaque that may completely block an artery, or a piece of plaque that may break off and travel to clog an artery supplying blood flow to the brain or another vital organ. Intracranial arterial stenosis is more prevalent among African-Americans and people of Asian, or Hispanic heritage. ...


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Nuclear Cardiology

Nuclear cardiology uses nuclear-imaging tests and studies to diagnose and assess conditions related to the heart. Nuclear-imaging tests may be used to assess blood flow, evaluate the pumping function of the heart, view the arteries of the heart, or determine the cause of a heart attack. ...


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Venous Interventions

Venous interventions are minimally invasive treatment options for patients with blocked or narrowed veins. These treatments are designed to either open up or seal off the diseased veins in order to prevent serious complications or permanent damage, while avoiding the need for surgery. ...


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Venous Insufficiency

Venous insufficiency is a chronic condition that involves a backwards flow of blood though the veins in the leg as a result of damaged valves. This back flow is called venous reflux. When blood cannot flow efficiently back to the heart, it begins to pool in the leg. Left untreated, venous insufficiency can lead to progressive vascular disease, causing pain, swelling, skin changes and eventual tissue breakdown. Chronic venous insufficiency is a long-term condition. It occurs because a vein is partly blocked, or blood is leaking around the valves. ...


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Liver Biopsy

A liver biopsy is a diagnostic procedure used to examine liver tissue and determine the cause of any abnormalities. This procedure is often performed after another test, such as a blood test or imaging test, indicates a problem with the liver. A liver biopsy can diagnose many problems, including cirrhosis, hepatitis B or C, and liver cancer. Results from a liver biopsy are available within a few days to several weeks. ...


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Testicular Biopsy

A testicular biopsy is a surgical procedure during which a small amount of tissue is removed from the testicles for microscopic examination. This procedure may be performed for a number of reasons: to help determine the cause of male infertility, to remove sperm to be used for assistive reproductive technology (ART), or to determine whether a testicular lump is malignant or benign. When a testicular biopsy is performed to assist in fertility, tissue containing sperm removed during the biopsy may be used for in vitro fertilization (IVF) or for sperm donation. When there is a question of malignancy, the surgeon's goal is to detect whether any cancerous tissue is present. ...


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Catheter Angiography

Catheter angiography is a minimally invasive diagnostic procedure to evaluate and treat conditions within the blood vessels. It is performed by inserting a catheter into a targeted artery or vein and delivering contrast dye to provide clear imaging results with the use of a fluoroscope. Angiogram pictures can be viewed as X-ray films or stored as digital images in a computer. ...


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Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

An aneurysm is a localized, balloon-like expansion in a blood vessel caused by weak vessel walls. The aorta is the artery that carries oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the legs. When a bulge occurs in the abdominal section of the aorta, between the diaphragm and the legs, it is called an "abdominal aortic aneurysm." Most aortic aneurysms occur in the abdomen, and most abdominal aortic aneurysms occur beneath the kidneys, and may continue into the iliac (leg) arteries. ...


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Coronary Thrombectomy

A coronary thrombectomy is a procedure that is performed to remove a blood clot from the coronary arteries. The blockage of blood flow within an artery caused by a blood clot, is referred to as thrombosis. Coronary thrombosis is a term used to describe the blockage of a coronary artery as a result of a blood clot within that artery. Coronary thrombosis occurs when the opening of the artery becomes so small that the blood flow slows significantly, allowing the blood to clot in the artery. Left untreated, thrombosis of a coronary artery can lead to a heart attack. ...


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Vascular Access for Dialysis

Dialysis, short for "hemodialysis," is a blood-cleansing procedure used as treatment for chronic kidney failure. The chief function of the kidneys is to filter waste products from the blood. When the kidneys fail, dialysis takes over their function. During dialysis, blood is removed from a vein in the patient's arm (the leg is also used, albeit much less frequently), circulated through a filtering machine, and returned to the body through an artery. Before dialysis begins, a point of vascular access (the site where blood is removed and returned) must be created. ...


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Acute Renal Failure

Acute renal failure (ARF) occurs when the kidneys suddenly stop filtering waste products from the blood. This sudden loss of function can result from injury, trauma or infection, or from complications during surgery. It usually affects people who have additional health-related conditions. ...


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Fluoroscopy

Fluoroscopy is an X-ray imaging technique that produces a video of internal body structures in motion. During a fluoroscopy, X-ray beams are passed through the region of the body that is being examined, producing video images that are transmitted to a monitor. In this way, the targeted area can be viewed in detail. Fluoroscopy is an effective tool to evaluate the function of almost all the body's systems, including the digestive, urinary, cardiovascular, respiratory, musculoskeletal and reproductive. Fluoroscopy can be used on its own as a diagnostic tool, or in combination with other diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. ...


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Digital Fluoroscopy

Digital fluoroscopy is a special kind of X-ray that produces video imaging of the internal organs in motion. Is may be used to observe the functioning of a particular organ or an entire body system for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Before a patient undergoes a fluoroscopic examination, a contrast material is administered either orally, intravenously or by enema, in order to highlight the area of the body being X-rayed. ...


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Heart Attack

A heart attack occurs when the coronary arteries, the blood vessels that deliver blood to the heart, are suddenly blocked and cannot supply the heart with blood and oxygen. This blockage causes damage and gradual death of the heart muscle and often requires immediate treatment in order to save the person's life. Also known as a myocardial infarction, heart attacks most often occur as a result of coronary artery disease, a condition in which plaque builds up inside the arteries. Heart attacks are the leading cause of death for men and women in the United States. ...


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Heart Attack FAQs

A heart attack, also known as a myocardial infarction, occurs when a coronary artery, a blood vessel that delivers blood to the heart, is suddenly blocked and cannot supply the heart with blood and oxygen. This causes damage and gradual death of the heart muscle and requires immediate treatment in order to save the patient's life. Heart attacks are the leading cause of death in the United States. ...


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Image-guided Surgery

Image-guided surgery (IGS) uses computer-generated images before, during and after a surgical procedure in order to identify and clarify the particular features of a surgical site. During image-guided surgery, the surgeon tracks the path of surgical instruments in order to perform the procedure indirectly. Image-guided surgery is a type of computer-assisted surgery. It has the advantage of being minimally invasive, and of allowing the surgeon to have an enhanced view of the anatomical structures of the surgical site. ...


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Laparoscopy

Laparoscopy is a minimally invasive surgical procedure used to diagnose and treat conditions in the abdominal and pelvic areas. During a laparoscopic procedure, a thin tube with a camera on the end, known as a laparoscope, is inserted through a tiny incision to allow the doctor to closely examine the organs of the area. Surgical instruments can be inserted through additional incisions to treat any identified problems or to retrieve tissue specimens. ...


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Nerve Pain

Nerve pain often results from nerve entrapment syndrome, the damage caused when a nerve is pinched or compressed. Patients with this condition may experience mild or severe pain that is temporary or chronic. The nerves of the body extend from the brain and spinal cord, threading through to every region of the body. The compression of the nerve can take place in the spine, causing pain to radiate into the limbs, or can take place in other parts of the body. It may occur do to a traumatic injury, repeated stress, or an underlying disease condition. ...


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Plantar Fasciitis

Plantar fasciitis is an inflammation of the plantar fascia, a band of fibrous connective tissue that runs along the bottom of the foot from the heel to the base of the toes. This band normally supports the muscles and the arch of the foot, functioning as a shock absorber, but if, after repeated stretching, it tears, inflammation and severe heel pain, exacerbated by standing or walking, result. Plantar fasciitis is the most frequent cause of heel pain and a common reason for the development of outgrowths of bone, called heel spurs, as well. It is more common in women and tends to occur as people age. ...


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Renovascular Disease

Renovascular disease is the blockage or narrowing within the renal arteries or veins, the blood vessels that carry blood to and from the kidneys. The arteries are affected much more commonly than the veins. Renovascular disease can cause kidney damage or kidney failure. This condition occurs most often in older patients, although young women may also be at risk for a certain type of renovascular disease called fibromuscular dysplasia. ...


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Renal Artery Stenosis

Renal artery stenosis (RAS) is the narrowing of one or both of the renal arteries, the blood vessels that carry blood to the kidneys from the aorta. RAS often causes high blood pressure and reduced kidney function, but many times it has no symptoms until it becomes severe. Most cases of RAS are caused by a condition called "atherosclerosis," the clogging, narrowing and hardening of the renal arteries. RAS develops when plaque builds up on the inner wall of the renal arteries, causing them to harden and narrow. RAS can also be caused by fibromuscular dysplasia, an abnormal growth of tissue within the wall of the artery, which also causes the blood vessels to narrow. ...


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Renal Artery Aneurysm

A renal artery aneurysm is a bulge or "balloon" that forms in the wall of an artery that travels to a kidney. In most cases, there are no symptoms associated with renal artery aneurysms, and they are often discovered accidentally during examinations for other medical conditions. Renal artery aneurysms may be caused by congenital weakness in the walls of the arteries; certain diseases; infection; or trauma that has damaged the vascular walls. Most renal artery aneurysms are small, and do not require medical treatment. However, larger aneurysms that are in danger of rupturing may require surgery. ...


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Spider Veins

Spider veins (telangiectasias) are small, thin blood vessels visible beneath the skin. They usually develop on the face or legs, and may look like a series of thin tree branches or strands of a spider web. Although most spider veins are only a cosmetic issue, for some people they can cause uncomfortable symptoms such as aching, burning, swelling and leg-cramping. ...


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Ultrasound-Guided Biopsy

An ultrasound-guided biopsy is a procedure in which ultrasound imaging is used to aid a physician in obtaining a sample of suspicious tissue. The procedure, which is also called a sonotome biopsy, is a less invasive, faster alternative to surgical biopsy that leaves little scarring. ...


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Endovenous Laser Ablation

Endovenous laser ablation, also known as EVLA, is a minimally invasive alternative to the traditional ligation and stripping treatment of varicose veins. Varicose veins are a common medical condition involving diseased veins, usually in the leg. As blood pools in the legs, the walls of the veins distend, until the veins appear raised and twisted under the skin. For some individuals, varicose veins present only a cosmetic problem. If the condition worsens, however, varicose veins can become painful and even dangerous and medical intervention may become necessary. ...


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Endovenous Laser Therapy

Endovenous laser therapy, known as EVLT, is a minimally invasive procedure used to treat unsightly varicose veins. It is fast, safe, and effective, providing and provides cosmetic benefits which improve the patient's quality of life. EVLT is a simple, outpatient procedure which takes place in the doctor's office and takes less than an hour. It provides immediate relief from symptoms without scarring or lengthy recovery. It has a success rate of 98 percent and has been FDA approved. ...


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Endovenous Radiofrequency Ablation

Endovenous radiofrequency ablation is a minimally invasive alternative to vein stripping for the treatment of varicose veins. Varicose veins are veins in which the valves are damaged to the point that there is a backflow of blood, called venous reflux. Venous reflux interferes with efficient circulation and causes blood to pool in the affected veins and cause distention. ...


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Foam Sclerotherapy

Foam sclerotherapy is a medical procedure used to treat varicose veins. Varicose veins result from weakened valves which keep the veins from functioning properly and allow blood to pool in the legs. Varicose veins may be not only unattractive but medically problematic. During foam sclerotherapy, a sclerosant solution is injected into the affected veins, causing their eventual collapse. These damaged veins will be absorbed by the body and blood flow will naturally be rerouted through other, healthy veins. ...


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Pelvic Varicose Veins

Varicose veins are swollen blood vessels which do not function efficiently. While they most frequently appear on the legs, they may also develop in the pelvic region, in the lower abdomen or around the genitals, thighs or buttocks. Patients with pelvic varicose veins, or pelvic congestion syndrome, may be asymptomatic. They may also experience troubling symptoms, primarily pain in the region. Women suffer more frequently with pelvic varicose veins, but men are also susceptible to the problem. Pelvic varicose veins may be invisible, particularly when the patient is lying down. ...


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Sclerotherapy

Sclerotherapy is a minimally invasive medical procedure used to treat varicose and spider veins, most commonly found on the legs, by collapsing them through the use of a solvent. Sclerotherapy has been used on patients since the 1930s with great success, producing increasingly effective medical, as well as cosmetic, results. ...


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Women and Heart Disease

Heart (cardiovascular) disease is the leading cause of death in women older than 40. The death rate from heart disease increases as women age, especially after they reach menopause. It has claimed the lives of more women than men since 1984, and is responsible for the deaths of more women than breast and lung cancers combined. Each year, one of every four women in the United States will die from heart disease, with African-American women having a higher death rate than Caucasian women. ...


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Peripheral Artery Disease - FAQ's

What is peripheral artery disease?

Peripheral artery disease (PAD), also known as peripheral vascular disease (PVD), occurs when peripheral blood vessels are blocked, hardened and narrowed with plaque in a condition called atherosclerosis. This condition reduces the amount of blood that flows to your head, organs and limbs and increases the risk of a heart attack, stroke, and transient ischemic attack. Due to the restricted blood flow, peripheral artery disease increases your risk of infection in your limbs. In severe cases of peripheral artery disease, gangrene can occur. ...


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Biliary Drainage

Biliary drainage, also called percutaneous biliary drainage, is a common treatment for clearing gallstones and other blockages from the bile ducts. The bile ducts carry bile from the liver to the gallbladder and small intestine to aid in digestion. ...


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Brain Aneurysm Embolization

A brain aneurysm embolization, also known as endovascular coiling, is a minimally invasive treatment for a brain aneurysm. It can be used to treat aneurysms that have ruptured and those that are intact. During the procedure, a catheter is inserted into the artery and a coil is threaded through the catheter and placed within the aneurysm, cutting off the flow of blood to the aneurysm. The lack of blood flow prevents the aneurysm from rupturing or leaking. Brain aneurysm embolization is an alternative treatment method available to patients that do not qualify for surgery. ...


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Carotid Angioplasty with Stent Placement

Carotid angioplasty and stent placement is a minimally invasive procedure performed to open blocked arteries and improve blood flow. During the procedure, the surgeon will permanently place a stent to keep the artery open, preventing or treating a stroke. The carotid arteries are located on each side of the neck and are the arteries responsible for blood flow to the brain. ...


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Computed Tomography Scan

Computed tomography (CT) scan is a sophisticated X-ray imaging system that scans thin "slices" of the body on all sides, then combines those slices into a highly detailed, three-dimensional digital image of hard and soft tissues in the body. The procedure is non-invasive, requires minimal radiation exposure, and can simultaneously depict tissues of different densities, which is not possible with traditional X-ray methods. ...


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Watch: Deep Venous Thrombosis | DVT | Dr. Arash Padidar 

Deep Vein Thrombosis | DVT

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Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) occurs when a blood clot, also known as a thrombus, forms in a vein deep within the body. Such clots most frequently form in the legs, but may occur in other parts of the body. Blood clots can be caused by anything that prevents the blood from circulating normally or clotting properly. Deep vein thrombosis may be caused by extended periods of inactivity; in some cases it may be the result of staying in bed during a long hospital stay or sitting for a long-period of time on an airplane flight. An injury to a vein or certain medical conditions may also cause a blood clot to form. DVT is a serious condition that requires medical treatment, as a blood clot may travel to the blood vessels of the lungs, heart or brain, causing serious complications which can be fatal. ...


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Dialysis FAQs

What is dialysis?

Dialysis is a process that substitutes for kidney function when the normal operation of the kidneys is interrupted. In a healthy body, the kidneys serve to regulate fluid levels in the body, filter waste products and control urination. Dialysis performs these functions when the kidneys fail due to disease or injury and the resultant buildup of waste products in the body threatens to cause illness. ...


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Pelvic Pain Syndrome

Pelvic pain syndrome is a chronic condition that involves persistent pain in the lower-abdominal and pelvic regions. Pelvic pain syndrome may be diagnosed when pelvic pain is chronic, and has been present for more than 6 months. It can affect women both physically and emotionally, leading to sleep disturbances, anxiety, depression and sexual dysfunction. Pelvic pain can be a symptom of an underlying condition, or its cause may remain unknown. Living with pelvic pain syndrome is often difficult, and many women spend years trying to determine its cause. ...


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Varicocele

A varicocele is an enlargement of the veins within the scrotum. Varicoceles are similar to varicose veins in the legs and form for similar reasons. The valves inside the veins become weak and ineffective, enabling a backflow of blood. Varicoceles are common, occurring in about 15 to 20 percent of all males. Almost all varicoceles affect the left testicle. Many varicoceles cause no symptoms, but they may result in discomfort and are a major, though reparable, cause of infertility. When and if varicoceles become troublesome, they can be corrected surgically. ...


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Carotid Artery Ultrasound

A carotid artery ultrasound is a diagnostic procedure that uses high-frequency sound waves to generate images of the neck's internal carotid arteries, which supply oxygen-rich blood to the brain. A carotid artery ultrasound is used to evaluate a patient's risk of stroke or other cardiovascular complications by checking for artery-narrowing plaque buildup. ...


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Brain Arteriovenous Malformation

A brain arteriovenous malformation, also known as a brain AVM, is a congenital condition that involves an abnormal connection between arteries and veins within the brain, causing them to appear tangled and dilated, putting patients at risk for hemorrhaging and other serious complications. AVMs may prevent oxygenated blood from completely circulating throughout the brain, causing symptoms such as headaches and vision problems. AVMs are present at birth and may occur nearly anywhere in the body, but are most common within the brain or spine. The exact cause of this condition is unknown, but it is believed to develop in utero, during fetal development. Brain arteriovenous malformations are more common in males than females and some evidence suggests they may run in families. ...


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Uterine Artery Embolization

Uterine artery embolization, also known as fibroid embolization, is a minimally invasive procedure that blocks blood flow to uterine fibroids, shrinking or destroying the non-cancerous tumors that grow on the uterine walls.

While fibroids do not always cause symptoms, they may lead to future complications and usually require treatment. Traditional treatment can be done with surgery - either a myomectomy to remove the fibroids, or a hysterectomy to remove the entire uterus. Fibroid embolization is a less invasive procedure that is performed under sedation through a blood vessel in the upper thigh. A catheter is first inserted into the blood vessel. A contrast material is then injected into the catheter providing the physician with a visual field of the blood supply to the fibroid. Particles that cut off the blood flow to the fibroid are injected through the catheter which close off the blood supply to the fibroid. ...


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Epidural Steroid Injections

By reducing inflammation, epidural steroid injections (ESIs) are used to temporarily relieve lumbar (lower back), cervical (neck), thoracic (mid-spine) and sciatic-nerve pain. ESIs contain cortisone and an anesthetic, and are delivered directly to the epidural space, which is the area between the spinal cord and the outer membrane that covers the brain and spinal cord (the dura). As a result, they provide more effective and faster pain relief than oral medications. ...


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Gastrostomy

Gastrostomy is a procedure during which a plastic feeding tube is inserted directly into the intestinal tract to provide nourishment when normal nutrition is difficult or impossible. Gastrostomy may conducted during an endoscopy, when the surgeon has inserted a tube through the nose down into the stomach, or through an incision in the skin that penetrates the abdominal wall. Patients using a feeding tube are said to be undergoing gavage or enteral feeding. ...


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Hemodialysis

Hemodialysis ("dialysis," for short) is a blood-cleansing procedure used as treatment for chronic kidney failure. The chief function of the kidneys is to filter waste products from the blood. When the kidneys fail, hemodialysis takes over their function. During hemodialysis, blood is removed from a vein in the patient's arm (the leg is also used, albeit much less frequently), circulated through a filtering machine, and returned to the body through an artery. ...


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Hypercoagulation Disorders

Hypercoagulation disorders, also known as thrombophilia or thrombotic disorders, are abnormalities in which a patient's blood clots too easily, resulting in several possible disease conditions. Coagulation is a vital process. Fortunately, for most people it is also an automatic, dependable one. In some cases, however, hypercoagulation (excessive clotting) occurs and may become life-threatening. ...


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MRI

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive, radiation-free scanning technology that is used to view detailed images of the tissues and organs within the body. During an MRI test, radio waves and magnetic fields are used to produce clear and detailed three-dimensional images of organs, as well as the hard and soft tissues throughout the body. ...


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X-Ray 

X-rays are a form of electromagnetic radiation, similar to visible light. Unlike light, however, x-rays have higher energy and can pass through most objects, including the body. Medical x-rays are used to generate images of tissues and structures inside the body.

X-Ray Purpose

When X-rays are used ...


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Inferior Vena Cava Filter

An inferior vena cava (IVC) filter , is a vascular filter that is inserted through a small incision into the main vein in the abdomen. This vein in the abdomen is called the inferior vena cava. The filter prevents blood clots from breaking loose in leg veins and lodging in the lung. The IVC filter is typically implanted permanently in those patients with a high risk of pulmonary embolism. ...


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Facet-Joint Injections

Facet-joint injections are both a minimally invasive treatment for back pain caused by inflamed facet joints, and a diagnostic tool for determining whether facet-joint inflammation is a source of pain. Four facet joints connect each vertebra to the vertebra above and below it. A facet-joint injection, administered into either the joint capsule or its surrounding tissue, combines a long-lasting steroid and a local anesthetic. ...


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Intracranial Aneurysm

An intracranial aneurysm, also known as a cerebral aneurysm, is a blood vessel within the brain that bulges or expands like a balloon and fills with blood. Caused by a weakness in wall of an artery, an intracranial aneurysm may lead to pressure on surrounding nerves and tissue, and an increased risk of rupture or hemorrhage. While this condition can occur anywhere within the brain, intracranial aneurysms most commonly affect the arteries from the underside of the brain to the base of the skull. Intracranial aneurysms can affect individuals of all ages, but are more common in adults than children, and seem to affect women more than men. ...


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Nephrostomy

A nephrostomy, also known as percutaneous nephrostomy, is performed to drain urine from the kidney. This procedure is necessary when urine cannot move through the ureters, bladder, and urethra as it normally does. A nephrostomy is performed by the surgical insertion of a tube directly into the kidney. The function of the nephrostomy is to temporarily drain urine either because its flow has been blocked or because normal urine flow has to be temporarily interrupted for medical reasons. The procedure allows the kidney to function properly and protects it from further damage. It also helps to clear any infection. ...


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Peritoneal Dialysis

Dialysis is a treatment to filter the blood and remove waste products when the kidneys are no longer functioning properly. During hemodialysis, the patient's blood circulates through a machine to be cleansed before re-entering the body. This procedure takes place in a medical setting under the supervision of a healthcare professional. ...


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Stroke

A stroke occurs when there is a reduction in the flow of blood to the brain. The lack of blood supply may be the result of a blockage in an artery or a burst blood vessel in the brain. A stroke deprives brain tissue of oxygen and nutrients, causing brain cells to die. A stroke is a medical emergency and requires immediate attention by a medical professional. Prompt treatment can minimize damage to the brain and prevent further complications. ...


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Uterine Fibroids

Uterine fibroids (myomas) are tumors that grow in the uterine walls. They are usually benign, and vary in size and quantity. The exact cause of uterine fibroids is unknown, but their formation may be affected by genetics, with a woman being more likely to develop them if she has a family member similarly afflicted. Most fibroids do not cause any symptoms and do not require any treatment, although, in some cases, they lead to pregnancy complications. Uterine fibroids are most common in women older than 30, and during the reproductive years. ...


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Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm FAQ's

What is an abdominal aortic aneurysm?

An aneurysm is a localized, balloon-like expansion in a blood vessel, caused by weak vessel walls. The abdominal aorta refers to the part of the aorta, the artery that carries oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the legs, between the diaphragm and the legs. That is why the bulge that occurs in the abdominal aorta is called an abdominal aortic aneurysm. ...


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Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy

A percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, also known as a PEG or gastrostomy tube insertion, is a surgical procedure to insert a feeding tube through the abdomen and into the stomach. A gastrostomy can be either a temporary or long-term treatment, depending on the condition of the patient. ...


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Head and Neck Computed Tomography Scan

A head and neck computed tomography (CT) scan is a noninvasive diagnostic procedure that uses multiple X-rays to create cross-sectional views of the head and neck areas. A CT scan of the head and neck enables a radiologist to see images of the neck, skull, brain, sinuses and eye sockets. A CT scan is painless, and its images are clearer and more detailed than those of a traditional X-ray. ...


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Pain Management

An estimated 70 million Americans suffer from chronic pain. Chronic pain is a major medical condition distinctly different from and more complex than acute pain. Whereas acute pain is a normal sensation triggered in the nervous system to alert the body to possible injury, chronic pain is a state in which pain persists, for many months or years, beyond the normal course required by healing. The effects, both economic and personal, associated with chronic pain can be significant. They include loss of income; debt from costly medical treatment; impaired mobility; and anxiety and depression. ...


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PET Scan

Positron emission tomography, also known as a PET scan, is a diagnostic test that captures images of biological functions. The images provide information about cell biochemistry and metabolism that can help diagnose a variety of diseases and other conditions. PET imaging measures energy emitted from a radioactive substance that is ingested prior to the procedure. The injected material, detected through radioactive particles called positrons, interacts with body tissue to produce gamma radiation, which provides information about cell biochemistry and metabolism. ...


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Thrombophlebitis

Thrombophlebitis is a swelling of a vein caused by a clot. It usually occurs in the leg, though it may rarely occur in the arm or neck. When the affected vein is near the surface of the skin, the condition is called superficial thrombophlebitis. When it occurs deep within a muscle, it is known as deep vein thrombosis and is much more dangerous. Thrombophlebitis may develop as a result of prolonged inactivity, such as a lengthy period of bed rest or extended travel in a car or plane. The risk for thrombophlebitis is diminished by limiting periods spent sitting or standing in one place. ...


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Varicose Veins

Varicose veins, which appear as unsightly bulges, usually on the legs, may be a medical, as well as cosmetic, problem. Varicose veins affect both men and women. According to the The National Institutes of Health, a quarter of patients who suffer from this condition are men. More women seek help for this disorder than men not only because more women suffer from them, but because in our culture women expose their legs more frequently to public view. Regardless of gender, however, varicose veins can be a serious problem requiring medical intervention. ...


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Back Pain Prevention

At some point in their lives, the great majority of adults will suffer from significant low back pain, usually from an injury at work, at home or at play. Orthopedists, chiropractors, physical therapists, coaches and trainers all have helpful advice regarding back pain prevention. By following their directives, people can minimize the possibility of back injury, and keep themselves healthier in the process. ...


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Coronary Artery Disease

Coronary artery disease is a buildup of fatty deposits in the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart. This buildup of fat, cholesterol and calcium, known collectively as plaque, can cause a hardening and narrowing of the arteries that restricts blood from reaching the heart. Blood clots can also form and completely block the artery. Coronary artery disease develops gradually, and can eventually lead to a heart attack or heart failure. Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of death in the United States for both men and women. ...


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Sacroiliac-Joint Steroid Injections

Sacroiliac-joint steroid injections help to diagnose and relieve lower-back pain caused by problems with one or both of the sacroiliac joints, which connect the spine's base (sacrum) to the pelvis's ilium bones. If one or both of the sacroiliac joints is inflamed (sacroiliac-joint dysfunction), a patient can experience pain in the buttocks and lower back that worsens when running or standing. Sacroiliac-joint dysfunction can be caused by osteoarthritis, traumatic injury, pregnancy, inflammatory joint disease, or underlying structural abnormalities. ...


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Ultrasound

An ultrasound, also known as a sonogram, is a fast, painless imaging technique that produces images of the internal organs through the use of high-frequency sound waves. It is especially useful for examining the breasts, bladder, thyroid, abdominal organs and male and female reproductive organs, and for obtaining images of the fetus in the womb. ...


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Cardiovascular Disease FAQs

The heart is a muscle that pumps oxygenated blood from the arteries throughout the body. Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the buildup of fatty deposits in the coronary arteries, the arteries that supply blood to the heart. These fatty substances, such as cholesterol, fat or cells that collect along the lining of the coronary arteries are called plaque. Most of the plaque build-up, either in the heart or the blood vessels, develops over the course of time. Because the arteries supply oxygen-rich blood to the heart, any blockage left untreated can result in the risk of the patient experiencing a heart attack, stroke or even death. ...


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Varicose Veins FAQs

Varicose veins are enlarged veins near the surface of the skin which may be troubling both cosmetically and medically. They occur most frequently in the legs, but may exist elsewhere in the body. Following are some of the questions frequently asked by patients who suffer with varicose veins. ...


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Fluoroscopy FAQs

Fluoroscopy is an X-ray procedure that captures moving images in the body. It allows doctors to evaluate the functioning of almost all the body's systems, including the cardiovascular, urinary, digestive, respiratory, musculoskeletal and reproductive. In addition to being used as a diagnostic tool, fluoroscopy is often used therapeutically, and to assist in complicated surgical procedures. ...


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Venous Thrombectomy

Venous thrombectomy is the surgical removal of a clot within a large vein. This type of clot usually develops as a complication of deep vein thrombosis (DVT), a common but serious condition in which a clot develops in a vein deep within the body. DVT causes vein damage, resulting in impeded blood flow. Although DVT is often asymptomatic, if the clot detaches and travels to the lungs, pulmonary embolism, which is potentially fatal, can develop. Venous thrombectomy is generally viewed as a treatment of last resort, and is sometimes performed only when a patient already has a pulmonary embolism. ...


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Watch: What is a Pulmonary Embolism| PE | Dr. Arash Padidar 

Pulmonary Embolism | PE

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A pulmonary embolism is a blockage of one or more arteries in the lungs. It is most often caused by a blood clot that travels to the lungs from another part of the body. Blood clots usually form in the veins of the legs or arms, but can dislodge and travel through the bloodstream to the lungs. Although a pulmonary embolism is not usually fatal, it is a complication of deep vein thrombosis, and can be life-threatening. ...


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Spider Veins FAQs

Spider veins, also known as telengiectasias, are a very common problem, aesthetically troubling to many people. Following are some frequently asked questions about spider veins.

What are spider veins?

Spider veins are veins in which the valves have stopped functioning properly. When the valves of a vein are working correctly, they keep blood flowing in one direction. When they become damaged, they allow blood to flow backwards and pool, causing the walls of the vein to distend and enlarge. This is called venous reflux. When smaller, more superficial veins are involved, a web of red or blue thin branches appear on the surface of the skin, usually on the legs or face. These are referred to as spider veins. ...


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Mammography FAQs

A mammogram is an X-ray examination of the breast performed to detect breast cancer in its earliest stages, often before any signs or symptoms of the disease are present. Mammograms are an effective way to detect cancer early with the goal of successfully treating and beating it.

Who is this procedure for?

A mammogram is a useful tool in detecting breast cancer because it can show abnormalities, like a tumor, in the breast tissue long before they can be felt. Screening and diagnostic mammography can aid in the detection and diagnosis of breast diseases, lumps, cysts and benign and malignant tumors. They can also detect calcium deposits that may indicate breast cancer. ...


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Cardiovascular Disease

The cardiovascular system consists of the heart, blood vessels, and the blood that is circulated throughout these vessels. The cardiovascular system is powered by the heart and it is responsible for transporting oxygen, nutrients, and hormones throughout the body. When there is a breakdown or deficiency in the circulatory system, it is often referred to as cardiovascular disease. Cardiovascular disease includes many different conditions that affect the cardiovascular system. Plaque may build up, narrowing the coronary arteries, and decrease blood flow to the heart. Blood clots may form within blood vessels and block blood flow to the heart or brain. In some cases, cardiovascular disease cannot be prevented. However, it can often be initially treated with healthy life style modifications. ...


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Nutrition

Proper diet is essential to maintaining good health. Keeping the body well-nourished and at a healthy weight has been proven to improve mood, quality of life and longevity. It may also go a long way in preventing or controlling many serious illnesses. Obesity, which has now reached epidemic proportions in the United States, and an enemy of good health, can be kept at bay through proper nutrition along with a program of healthy exercise. ...


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Exercise

Regular exercise has many benefits that may help individuals live longer, healthier lives. Individuals who engage in regular moderately intense physical activity may reduce their risks of developing heart disease and other serious illnesses.

Benefits of an Exercise Routine

Regular physical activity can improve health and lengthen life expectancy by helping a patient to achieve and maintain an appropriate weight, become energetic and fit, strengthen the immune system, and preserve emotional balance. ...


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May-Thurner Syndrome

May-Thurner syndrome is the result of the compression of the left iliac vein.The right iliac artery, which normally lays over the iliac vein, is the cause of this condition. In this syndrome, the right iliac artery constricts the iliac vein which narrows as a result of the constriction and sometimes scars. An individual with May-Thurner syndrome is at increased risk for developing deep vein thrombosis, or DVT, a potentially serious blood clot that can completely obstruct the circulation of blood in that vein. Such an individual may also develop venous insufficiency as a result of the deep vein thrombosis, known as post-thrombotic syndrome. ...


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Watch: Peripheral Artery Disease Screening | Dr. Arash Padidar 

Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) | Screening

Schedule Appointment | (408) 918-0405
 

Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is often caused by atherosclerosis, an accumulation of plaque in the peripheral arteries, which carry blood to the arms, legs and internal organs. Atherosclerosis causes the peripheral arteries to narrow and harden, and/or become blocked. By reducing the amount of blood that flows to the limbs and organs, atherosclerosis increases the risk of heart attack, stroke and transient ischemic attack. It can also cause limbs to become infected and, in severe cases, gangrenous. ...


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Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm

An aneurysm is a bulge in an artery, caused by a weakening of the blood vessel wall. A thoracic aortic aneurysm forms in the chest, within the body's largest artery, known as the aorta, typically caused by atherosclerosis, or hardening of the arteries. Atherosclerosis is a condition in which a gradual buildup of fats and cholesterol along the artery walls hardens into a substance called plaque. As the amount of plaque increases, it slowly narrows the diameter of the artery, often causing an aneurysm, and contributing to other cardiovascular disorders. ...


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Thoracic Oncology Surgery

Thoracic surgical oncology is a division of general thoracic surgery that provides state-of-the-art care and palliative treatment for patients with cancer of the following:

  • Lung
  • Esophagus
  • Chest

A multidisciplinary approach is taken in providing treatment to patients. Advances in technology have made diagnosis more accurate; therefore, tailoring treatment or a combination of treatments for patients is an increasingly common practice. Therapies may include: ...


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Ultrasound-Guided Biopsy

Ultrasound is an excellent way to evaluate breast abnormalities detected by mammography, but in some cases it is not possible to tell from the imaging studies alone whether a growth is benign or cancerous. Ultrasound-guided breast biopsy is a highly accurate way to evaluate suspicious masses within the breast that are visible on ultrasound, whether or not they can be felt on breast self-examination or clinical examination. ...


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Transient Ischemic Attack

A transient ischemic attack (TIA) occurs when the blood flow to the brain stops for a brief period of time. A TIA is a stroke-like event caused by improper blood flow in the carotid artery. The carotid artery is located in the neck and it carries blood from the heart to the brain. When blood flow is disrupted or blocked within these arteries, stroke-like symptoms may occur. Symptoms of a TIA are similar to those of a stroke, but they do not last as long, as the blockage within the artery may break-up or dissolve. In some individuals, a transient ischemic attack may be a warning sign that a stroke may occur in the future. ...


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Venography

A venography, also known as a venogram, is an X-ray test that uses a a contrast dye that is injected into the body, to show how blood flows through the veins. The dye allows the veins to be viewed more clearly on the X-ray images. A venogram may be used view the veins and blood flow in certain areas of the body to: ...


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Breast Biopsy

A biopsy is a minimally invasive procedure that removes a sample of abnormal tissue to determine whether it is benign or malignant. A biopsy can be performed on many different areas of the body, but is commonly used to diagnose, and sometimes treat, lumps found in breast tissue.

A breast biopsy may be performed after abnormalities have been detected in the breast as a result of a breast self-exam, mammogram or other imaging procedure. In addition to its diagnostic purpose, a biopsy can remove small tumors or other abnormalities that are found during the procedure, eliminating the need for additional surgery. ...


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Vascular Pain

Vascular pain is a serious medical condition affecting millions of people in the United States each year. Such pain may be chronic, acute or sub-acute and may range in severity from mild to debilitating. The cause of the pain is not always clear, although it may often result from vascular abnormalities in which blood vessels do not function properly and blood flow is impeded. When this happens, tissues, organs or nerves in the area may be adversely affected. When vascular pain occurs in the legs, it is called claudication. ...


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Claudication

Claudication is pain in the legs caused by too little blood flow. It is generally associated with conditions such as peripheral artery disease or arteriosclerosis. While it primarily occurs in the legs, claudication may also affect the arms. If left untreated, claudication may have serious medical consequences. ...


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Perforator Vein Ablation

The veins that connect the deep and superficial veins are called perforator veins. Like other veins in the body, they may weaken and become damaged. If their valves malfunction and allow a back flow of blood, called venous reflux, varicose veins may develop. Varicose veins appear as twisted ropes under the surface of the skin. They usually occur in the legs due to the fact that there they are working against gravity. While patients with varicose veins may be asymptomatic, at least initially, varicose veins may cause troubling symptoms, such as pain, swelling, itching or bleeding. Whether they cause medical symptoms of not, for many patients varicose veins may present daunting cosmetic issues. Patients with varicose veins should be thoroughly checked since the damaged veins may be an indication of circulatory problems elsewhere in the body. ...


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Reticular Veins

Reticular veins are damaged veins that are larger than spider veins but smaller than varicose veins. While they may appear blue or greenish and somewhat enlarged beneath the surface of the skin, they are not ropy and bulging like varicose veins. Reticular veins can appear occasionally on the face, but are most frequently found on the outer thighs or on the backs of the thighs and knees. Usually only of cosmetic concern, reticular veins may also cause patients to experience tenderness, pain, burning or itching in the affected area. ...


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Peripheral Artery Disease

Peripheral artery disease, also known as PAD, is a common vascular condition involving a buildup of plaque within the peripheral arteries of the limbs, usually the legs and feet. Plaque is an accumulation of fat, cholesterol, calcium and other substances in the blood. The buildup of plaque can severely narrow or block the arteries and limit the flow of oxygen-rich blood to the body. PAD may be a symptom of atherosclerosis, a specific form of arteriosclerosis, which leads to a more widespread occurrence of plaque buildup in arteries. ...


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Laser Atherectomy for Peripheral Artery Disease

Laser atherectomy is a new and efficient method of removing plaque from blood vessels clogged by peripheral artery disease. Peripheral artery disease or PAD, also known as peripheral vascular disease or PVD, is caused by atherosclerosis, a condition in which the arteries become clogged with plaque and blood flow is impeded. PAD most frequently occurs in the legs, but can occur elsewhere in the body. Arterial plaque, made up of cholesterol and other substances, usually forms in arteries already narrowed and hardened by the process of arteriosclerosis, a normal part of aging. ...


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Peripheral Stenting

Stenting is a common treatment method used to expend arteries within the lower extremities affected by peripheral artery disease (PAD). This condition involves blockage, hardening or narrowing of blood vessels throughout the body as a result of a buildup of plaque. This reduced or blocked blood supply can significantly increase a person's risk of having a heart attack or stroke. ...


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Nuclear Testing

Nuclear medicine uses images of internal organs and body functions to diagnose and treat various diseases and conditions. These images are produced by injecting or ingesting a radioactive substance prior to an imaging exam and are created by the energy emitted by the radioactive substances. Scans may be performed in conjunction with other types of imaging tests such as CT scans, MRI scans, or X-rays. ...


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Nuclear Medicine

Nuclear medicine is a division of radiology that uses small amounts of radioactive material to evaluate, diagnose and treat disease conditions. Nuclear medicine examinations and imaging tests use radioactive substances to create uniquely detailed images that enable physicians to examine both the anatomy and function of various regions of the body. ...


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Intracranial Arterial Stenosis

Intracranial arterial stenosis is the a narrowing of an artery within the brain. This condition can significantly affect blood flow and lead to a stroke. Intracranial arterial stenosis is caused by a buildup of plaque in the wall of the blood vessels, which narrows the arteries and blood passageways, resulting in decreased blood flow to certain areas of the brain. Stroke may be a result of intracranial arterial stenosis because of plaque that may completely block an artery, or a piece of plaque that may break off and travel to clog an artery supplying blood flow to the brain or another vital organ. Intracranial arterial stenosis is more prevalent among African-Americans and people of Asian, or Hispanic heritage. ...


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Nuclear Cardiology

Nuclear cardiology uses nuclear-imaging tests and studies to diagnose and assess conditions related to the heart. Nuclear-imaging tests may be used to assess blood flow, evaluate the pumping function of the heart, view the arteries of the heart, or determine the cause of a heart attack. ...


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Venous Interventions

Venous interventions are minimally invasive treatment options for patients with blocked or narrowed veins. These treatments are designed to either open up or seal off the diseased veins in order to prevent serious complications or permanent damage, while avoiding the need for surgery. ...


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Venous Insufficiency

Venous insufficiency is a chronic condition that involves a backwards flow of blood though the veins in the leg as a result of damaged valves. This back flow is called venous reflux. When blood cannot flow efficiently back to the heart, it begins to pool in the leg. Left untreated, venous insufficiency can lead to progressive vascular disease, causing pain, swelling, skin changes and eventual tissue breakdown. Chronic venous insufficiency is a long-term condition. It occurs because a vein is partly blocked, or blood is leaking around the valves. ...


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Liver Biopsy

A liver biopsy is a diagnostic procedure used to examine liver tissue and determine the cause of any abnormalities. This procedure is often performed after another test, such as a blood test or imaging test, indicates a problem with the liver. A liver biopsy can diagnose many problems, including cirrhosis, hepatitis B or C, and liver cancer. Results from a liver biopsy are available within a few days to several weeks. ...


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Testicular Biopsy

A testicular biopsy is a surgical procedure during which a small amount of tissue is removed from the testicles for microscopic examination. This procedure may be performed for a number of reasons: to help determine the cause of male infertility, to remove sperm to be used for assistive reproductive technology (ART), or to determine whether a testicular lump is malignant or benign. When a testicular biopsy is performed to assist in fertility, tissue containing sperm removed during the biopsy may be used for in vitro fertilization (IVF) or for sperm donation. When there is a question of malignancy, the surgeon's goal is to detect whether any cancerous tissue is present. ...


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Catheter Angiography

Catheter angiography is a minimally invasive diagnostic procedure to evaluate and treat conditions within the blood vessels. It is performed by inserting a catheter into a targeted artery or vein and delivering contrast dye to provide clear imaging results with the use of a fluoroscope. Angiogram pictures can be viewed as X-ray films or stored as digital images in a computer. ...


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Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

An aneurysm is a localized, balloon-like expansion in a blood vessel caused by weak vessel walls. The aorta is the artery that carries oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the legs. When a bulge occurs in the abdominal section of the aorta, between the diaphragm and the legs, it is called an "abdominal aortic aneurysm." Most aortic aneurysms occur in the abdomen, and most abdominal aortic aneurysms occur beneath the kidneys, and may continue into the iliac (leg) arteries. ...


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Coronary Thrombectomy

A coronary thrombectomy is a procedure that is performed to remove a blood clot from the coronary arteries. The blockage of blood flow within an artery caused by a blood clot, is referred to as thrombosis. Coronary thrombosis is a term used to describe the blockage of a coronary artery as a result of a blood clot within that artery. Coronary thrombosis occurs when the opening of the artery becomes so small that the blood flow slows significantly, allowing the blood to clot in the artery. Left untreated, thrombosis of a coronary artery can lead to a heart attack. ...


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Vascular Access for Dialysis

Dialysis, short for "hemodialysis," is a blood-cleansing procedure used as treatment for chronic kidney failure. The chief function of the kidneys is to filter waste products from the blood. When the kidneys fail, dialysis takes over their function. During dialysis, blood is removed from a vein in the patient's arm (the leg is also used, albeit much less frequently), circulated through a filtering machine, and returned to the body through an artery. Before dialysis begins, a point of vascular access (the site where blood is removed and returned) must be created. ...


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Acute Renal Failure

Acute renal failure (ARF) occurs when the kidneys suddenly stop filtering waste products from the blood. This sudden loss of function can result from injury, trauma or infection, or from complications during surgery. It usually affects people who have additional health-related conditions. ...


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Fluoroscopy

Fluoroscopy is an X-ray imaging technique that produces a video of internal body structures in motion. During a fluoroscopy, X-ray beams are passed through the region of the body that is being examined, producing video images that are transmitted to a monitor. In this way, the targeted area can be viewed in detail. Fluoroscopy is an effective tool to evaluate the function of almost all the body's systems, including the digestive, urinary, cardiovascular, respiratory, musculoskeletal and reproductive. Fluoroscopy can be used on its own as a diagnostic tool, or in combination with other diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. ...


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Digital Fluoroscopy

Digital fluoroscopy is a special kind of X-ray that produces video imaging of the internal organs in motion. Is may be used to observe the functioning of a particular organ or an entire body system for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Before a patient undergoes a fluoroscopic examination, a contrast material is administered either orally, intravenously or by enema, in order to highlight the area of the body being X-rayed. ...


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Heart Attack

A heart attack occurs when the coronary arteries, the blood vessels that deliver blood to the heart, are suddenly blocked and cannot supply the heart with blood and oxygen. This blockage causes damage and gradual death of the heart muscle and often requires immediate treatment in order to save the person's life. Also known as a myocardial infarction, heart attacks most often occur as a result of coronary artery disease, a condition in which plaque builds up inside the arteries. Heart attacks are the leading cause of death for men and women in the United States. ...


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Heart Attack FAQs

A heart attack, also known as a myocardial infarction, occurs when a coronary artery, a blood vessel that delivers blood to the heart, is suddenly blocked and cannot supply the heart with blood and oxygen. This causes damage and gradual death of the heart muscle and requires immediate treatment in order to save the patient's life. Heart attacks are the leading cause of death in the United States. ...


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Image-guided Surgery

Image-guided surgery (IGS) uses computer-generated images before, during and after a surgical procedure in order to identify and clarify the particular features of a surgical site. During image-guided surgery, the surgeon tracks the path of surgical instruments in order to perform the procedure indirectly. Image-guided surgery is a type of computer-assisted surgery. It has the advantage of being minimally invasive, and of allowing the surgeon to have an enhanced view of the anatomical structures of the surgical site. ...


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Laparoscopy

Laparoscopy is a minimally invasive surgical procedure used to diagnose and treat conditions in the abdominal and pelvic areas. During a laparoscopic procedure, a thin tube with a camera on the end, known as a laparoscope, is inserted through a tiny incision to allow the doctor to closely examine the organs of the area. Surgical instruments can be inserted through additional incisions to treat any identified problems or to retrieve tissue specimens. ...


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Nerve Pain

Nerve pain often results from nerve entrapment syndrome, the damage caused when a nerve is pinched or compressed. Patients with this condition may experience mild or severe pain that is temporary or chronic. The nerves of the body extend from the brain and spinal cord, threading through to every region of the body. The compression of the nerve can take place in the spine, causing pain to radiate into the limbs, or can take place in other parts of the body. It may occur do to a traumatic injury, repeated stress, or an underlying disease condition. ...


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Plantar Fasciitis

Plantar fasciitis is an inflammation of the plantar fascia, a band of fibrous connective tissue that runs along the bottom of the foot from the heel to the base of the toes. This band normally supports the muscles and the arch of the foot, functioning as a shock absorber, but if, after repeated stretching, it tears, inflammation and severe heel pain, exacerbated by standing or walking, result. Plantar fasciitis is the most frequent cause of heel pain and a common reason for the development of outgrowths of bone, called heel spurs, as well. It is more common in women and tends to occur as people age. ...


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Renovascular Disease

Renovascular disease is the blockage or narrowing within the renal arteries or veins, the blood vessels that carry blood to and from the kidneys. The arteries are affected much more commonly than the veins. Renovascular disease can cause kidney damage or kidney failure. This condition occurs most often in older patients, although young women may also be at risk for a certain type of renovascular disease called fibromuscular dysplasia. ...


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Renal Artery Stenosis

Renal artery stenosis (RAS) is the narrowing of one or both of the renal arteries, the blood vessels that carry blood to the kidneys from the aorta. RAS often causes high blood pressure and reduced kidney function, but many times it has no symptoms until it becomes severe. Most cases of RAS are caused by a condition called "atherosclerosis," the clogging, narrowing and hardening of the renal arteries. RAS develops when plaque builds up on the inner wall of the renal arteries, causing them to harden and narrow. RAS can also be caused by fibromuscular dysplasia, an abnormal growth of tissue within the wall of the artery, which also causes the blood vessels to narrow. ...


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Renal Artery Aneurysm

A renal artery aneurysm is a bulge or "balloon" that forms in the wall of an artery that travels to a kidney. In most cases, there are no symptoms associated with renal artery aneurysms, and they are often discovered accidentally during examinations for other medical conditions. Renal artery aneurysms may be caused by congenital weakness in the walls of the arteries; certain diseases; infection; or trauma that has damaged the vascular walls. Most renal artery aneurysms are small, and do not require medical treatment. However, larger aneurysms that are in danger of rupturing may require surgery. ...


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Spider Veins

Spider veins (telangiectasias) are small, thin blood vessels visible beneath the skin. They usually develop on the face or legs, and may look like a series of thin tree branches or strands of a spider web. Although most spider veins are only a cosmetic issue, for some people they can cause uncomfortable symptoms such as aching, burning, swelling and leg-cramping. ...


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Ultrasound-Guided Biopsy

An ultrasound-guided biopsy is a procedure in which ultrasound imaging is used to aid a physician in obtaining a sample of suspicious tissue. The procedure, which is also called a sonotome biopsy, is a less invasive, faster alternative to surgical biopsy that leaves little scarring. ...


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Endovenous Laser Ablation

Endovenous laser ablation, also known as EVLA, is a minimally invasive alternative to the traditional ligation and stripping treatment of varicose veins. Varicose veins are a common medical condition involving diseased veins, usually in the leg. As blood pools in the legs, the walls of the veins distend, until the veins appear raised and twisted under the skin. For some individuals, varicose veins present only a cosmetic problem. If the condition worsens, however, varicose veins can become painful and even dangerous and medical intervention may become necessary. ...


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Endovenous Laser Therapy

Endovenous laser therapy, known as EVLT, is a minimally invasive procedure used to treat unsightly varicose veins. It is fast, safe, and effective, providing and provides cosmetic benefits which improve the patient's quality of life. EVLT is a simple, outpatient procedure which takes place in the doctor's office and takes less than an hour. It provides immediate relief from symptoms without scarring or lengthy recovery. It has a success rate of 98 percent and has been FDA approved. ...


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Endovenous Radiofrequency Ablation

Endovenous radiofrequency ablation is a minimally invasive alternative to vein stripping for the treatment of varicose veins. Varicose veins are veins in which the valves are damaged to the point that there is a backflow of blood, called venous reflux. Venous reflux interferes with efficient circulation and causes blood to pool in the affected veins and cause distention. ...


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Foam Sclerotherapy

Foam sclerotherapy is a medical procedure used to treat varicose veins. Varicose veins result from weakened valves which keep the veins from functioning properly and allow blood to pool in the legs. Varicose veins may be not only unattractive but medically problematic. During foam sclerotherapy, a sclerosant solution is injected into the affected veins, causing their eventual collapse. These damaged veins will be absorbed by the body and blood flow will naturally be rerouted through other, healthy veins. ...


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Pelvic Varicose Veins

Varicose veins are swollen blood vessels which do not function efficiently. While they most frequently appear on the legs, they may also develop in the pelvic region, in the lower abdomen or around the genitals, thighs or buttocks. Patients with pelvic varicose veins, or pelvic congestion syndrome, may be asymptomatic. They may also experience troubling symptoms, primarily pain in the region. Women suffer more frequently with pelvic varicose veins, but men are also susceptible to the problem. Pelvic varicose veins may be invisible, particularly when the patient is lying down. ...


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Sclerotherapy

Sclerotherapy is a minimally invasive medical procedure used to treat varicose and spider veins, most commonly found on the legs, by collapsing them through the use of a solvent. Sclerotherapy has been used on patients since the 1930s with great success, producing increasingly effective medical, as well as cosmetic, results. ...


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Women and Heart Disease

Heart (cardiovascular) disease is the leading cause of death in women older than 40. The death rate from heart disease increases as women age, especially after they reach menopause. It has claimed the lives of more women than men since 1984, and is responsible for the deaths of more women than breast and lung cancers combined. Each year, one of every four women in the United States will die from heart disease, with African-American women having a higher death rate than Caucasian women. ...


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Peripheral Artery Disease - FAQ's

What is peripheral artery disease?

Peripheral artery disease (PAD), also known as peripheral vascular disease (PVD), occurs when peripheral blood vessels are blocked, hardened and narrowed with plaque in a condition called atherosclerosis. This condition reduces the amount of blood that flows to your head, organs and limbs and increases the risk of a heart attack, stroke, and transient ischemic attack. Due to the restricted blood flow, peripheral artery disease increases your risk of infection in your limbs. In severe cases of peripheral artery disease, gangrene can occur. ...


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